In about 3-4% of patients, the integrated proviral DNA or the virally encoded proteins cause CD4 cell or T-helper lymphocyte
lymphoproliferative disease that may result in adult T-cell leukemia (ATL).
9) Cyclosporine and tacrolimus have inhibitory effects on T-helper lymphocyte
production of IL-2, IL-2 receptors (IL-2r), and interferon gamma (IFN-[gamma]) as well as to a lesser degree on the production of other cytokines (IL-3, 4 and 5, TNF-[alpha] and [beta]) that lead to altered T-lymphocyte and B-lymphocyte function.
We cannot exclude also important role of the functional disorders on the part of such effector cells, as macrophages, participating in processing of antigen and its presentation to naive T-helper lymphocyte
, since, exactly at this stage the chain of regulating events occur, defining direction of immune response (Yarilin, 1999).
Sources of variability in repeated T-helper lymphocyte
counts from human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients: total lymphocyte count fluctuations and diurnal cycle are important.
Interleukin-9 (IL-9) is an attractive therapeutic target because the multifunctional cytokine has been shown in experimental models to increase airway inflammation, airway obstruction, airway hyperresponsiveness, mucin production, mast cell generation, and T-helper lymphocyte
type 2 (Th2 lymphocyte) and eosinophil accumulation, explained Dr.
Hypoplasia of the thymus, decrease of T lymphocyte number, reduction of T-helper lymphocyte
function and of the cytotoxic activity of natural killer (NK) cells occur in humans and animals [12, 15, 16].
Because the primary target of HIV is the T-helper lymphocyte
CD4+ cell), monitoring the CD4+ cell counts of persons with HIV infection provides a measure of HIV-related immune dysfunction.
15] IL-2 activates T-helper lymphocytes
and induces the production of other cytokines, which are believed to influence the extent of the immune response significantly.
in this study group was in keeping with international reports and showed consistent conversion of naive T-helper cells to memory T-helper cells from 0-3 months (ratio 2.
18,19] T-helper lymphocytes
play an integral role in defence against fungi.
Research has pointed to the ability of probiotics to induce an increase in local IgA, increase NK cell activity, and modulate the actions of regulatory T-helper lymphocytes