Ca2+ appears to play a role in the induction of dengue-specific T-helper cells
. Dengue antigen has been shown to increase the influx of Ca2+ into T-cells.
Historical rates do not exceed 50% in this disease setting; serum levels of antigen-specific IgG, against both individual WT1 peptides within GPS and the full-length WT1 protein, were induced in 86% of patients; achievement of high titers of WT1-specific IgG post-GPS results from Immunoglobulin M to IgG class switching, the latter being a surrogate marker of induction of activated T-helper cells
The decreased antibody titer at high ambient temperature may also be due to the increased inflammatory cytokines and depression of T-helper cells
. T-helper cells
are responsible for production of antibodies (Khan et al., 2012b).
recognize only those antigens which are presented on the surface of APCs in association with MHC-II antigens and undergo the process of blast formation, proliferation and differentiation into effector and memory T-helper cells
Detection of peripheral blood T-helper cells
The purpose of this research is to prove the immunomodulatory activity of alkaloid sambiloto against a specific immune response i.e., interferon [gamma] (IFN[gamma]) and T-helper cells
([CD4.sup.+]) after and before being infected with Salmonella typhimurium.
Adaptive T cells include proinflammatory T-helper cells
(Th1, Th17) and anti-inflammatory T cells (Th2, Treg).
This rapid cell division increases the number of T-suppressor cells while at the same time reducing T-helper cells
. This reduces immune protection and leaves the body vulnerable to disease and infection (e.g.
According to the company, PolyStart is a unique vaccine platform antigen expression system that 'elevates' the expression and consequently the processing and presentation of the desired antigenic peptide for the stimulation of T-killer and/or T-helper cells
to recognize and kill cancer cells.
Within the T-cells, T-helper cells
were defined as [CD45.sup.+][D3.sup.+][CD4.sup.+], T-cytotoxic cells as [CD45.sup.+][D3.sup.+][CD8.sup.+], and double positive T-cells as [CD45.sup.+][D3.sup.+][CD4.sup.+][CD8.sup.+].
Naive T-helper cells
chiefly differentiate into Th1 or Th2 cells, and defects in the appropriate regulation of their function have been implicated in the pathophysiology of SLE.