synovial joint

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joint

 [joint]
the site of the junction or union of two or more bones of the body; its primary function is to provide motion and flexibility to the frame of the body. Some are immovable, such as the sutures where segments of bone are fused together in the skull. Others, such as those between the vertebrae, are gliding joints and have limited motion. However, most joints allow considerable motion. The most common type are the synovial joints, which have a complex internal structure, composed not only of ends of bones but also of ligaments, cartilage, the articular capsule, the synovial membrane, and sometimes bursae.
acromioclavicular joint the point at which the clavicle joins with the acromion.
ankle joint the joint between the foot and the leg; see ankle.
arthrodial joint gliding joint.
ball-and-socket joint a synovial joint in which the rounded or spheroidal surface of one bone (the “ball”) moves within a cup-shaped depression (the “socket”) on another bone, allowing greater freedom of movement than any other type of joint. See illustration. Called also polyaxial or spheroidal joint.
bicondylar joint a condylar joint with a meniscus between the articular surfaces, as in the temporomandibular joint.
cartilaginous joint a type of synarthrosis in which the bones are united by cartilage, providing slight flexible movement; the two types are synchondrosis and symphysis.
composite joint (compound joint) a type of synovial joint in which more than two bones are involved.
condylar joint (condyloid joint) one in which an ovoid head of one bone moves in an elliptical cavity of another, permitting all movements except axial rotation; this type is found at the wrist, connecting the radius and carpal bones, and at the base of the index finger. See illustration.
diarthrodial joint synovial joint.
elbow joint the synovial joint between the humerus, ulna, and radius. See also elbow.
ellipsoidal joint condylar joint.
facet j's the articulations of the vertebral column.
fibrous joint a joint in which the union of bony elements is by continuous intervening fibrous tissue, which makes little motion possible; the three types are suture, syndesmosis, and gomphosis. Called also immovable or synarthrodial joint and synarthrosis.
flail joint an unusually mobile joint, such as results when joint resection is done to relieve pain.
glenohumeral joint the synovial joint formed by the head of the humerus and the glenoid cavity of the scapula. Called also humeral joint and shoulder joint.
gliding joint a synovial joint in which the opposed surfaces are flat or only slightly curved, so that the bones slide against each other in a simple and limited way. The intervertebral joints are this type, and many of the small bones of the wrist and ankle also meet in gliding joints. Called also arthrodial joint and plane joint.
hinge joint a synovial joint that allows movement in only one plane, forward and backward. Examples are the elbow and the interphalangeal joints of the fingers. The jaw is primarily a hinge joint but it can also move somewhat from side to side. The knee and ankle joints are hinge joints that also allow some rotary movement. See illustration. Called also ginglymus.
hip joint the synovial joint formed at the head of the femur and the acetabulum of the hip. See illustration at hip.
humeral joint glenohumeral joint.
immovable joint fibrous j.
knee joint the compound joint between the femur, patella, and tibia.
pivot joint a synovial joint in which one bone pivots within a bony or an osseoligamentous ring, allowing only rotary movement; an example is the joint between the first and second cervical vertebrae (the atlas and axis). See illustration. Called also rotary or trochoid joint.
plane joint gliding joint.
polyaxial joint ball-and-socket joint.
rotary joint pivot joint.
sacroiliac joint the joint between the sacrum and ilium in the lower back; see also sacroiliac joint.
saddle joint a synovial joint whose movement resembles that of a rider on horseback, who can shift in several directions at will; there is a saddle joint at the base of the thumb, so that the thumb is more flexible and complex than the other fingers but is also more difficult to treat if injured.
shoulder joint humeral joint.
simple joint a type of synovial joint in which only two bones are involved.
spheroidal joint ball-and-socket joint.
synarthrodial joint fibrous j.
synovial joint a specialized joint that permits more or less free movement, the union of the bony elements being surrounded by an articular capsule enclosing a cavity lined by synovial membrane. Called also articulation and diarthrosis. A capillary network in the synovial membrane provides nutrients and synovial fluid to nourish and lubricate the joint space. Strong fibrous bands or cords (ligaments) give strength and security to synovial joints. The majority of the body's joints are of this type. They are divided into five types according to structure and motion: ball and socket, gliding, saddle, hinge, and pivot.
Joints.
trochoid joint pivot joint.
temporomandibular joint (TMJ) a bicondylar joint formed by the head of the mandible and the mandibular fossa, and the articular tubercle of the temporal bone. See also temporomandibular joint disorder.

syn·o·vi·al joint

[TA]
a joint in which the opposing bony surfaces are covered with a layer of hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage within a joint cavity that contains synovial fluid, lined with synovial membrane and reinforced by a fibrous capsule and ligaments; and there is some degree of free movement possible.

synovial joint

A freely movable joint in which the contributing (joint-facing) bones are covered by an articular capsule enclosed in a cavity lined by a synovial membrane and filled with synovial fluid.

syn·o·vi·al joint

(si-nō'vē-ăl joynt) [TA]
A joint in which (1) the opposing bony surfaces are covered with a layer of hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage, (2) there is a joint cavity containing synovial fluid, lined with synovial membrane and reinforced by a fibrous capsule and ligaments, and (3) there is some degree of free movement possible.
Synonym(s): articulatio [TA] , diarthrodial joint, diarthrosis, movable joint.

Synovial joint

A particular type of joint that allows for movement in the articular bones.

syn·o·vi·al joint

(si-nō'vē-ăl joynt) [TA]
A joint in which (1) the opposing bony surfaces are covered with a layer of hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage, (2) there is a joint cavity containing synovial fluid, lined with synovial membrane and reinforced by a fibrous capsule and ligaments, and (3) there is some degree of free movement possible.
Synonym(s): articulatio [TA] , diarthrodial joint, diarthrosis, movable joint.
References in periodicals archive ?
Kiviranta, The Structure and Regenerative Capacity of Synovial Joint Tissues-1, Elsevier Ltd., 2010.
introduced the 'cavitometre', which was the first in vitro synovial joint model that was developed specifically to study joint cracking.
Synovial joints, such as the hips, knees and joints of the hand, have a more complex structure and function, allowing circular and/or angular movement through greater degrees than other body joints.
(15) observed that the ideal therapeutic treatment for lesions in the synovial joints should involve immobilization and remobilization, so as to restore the properties of support and minimize friction and wear caused by the weight load on this joint.
IntroductionPrimary Hypertrophic Osteoarthropathy (PHOA) is a clinical syndrome characterised by clubbing of the digits, enlargement of the extremities and synovial joints effusions associated with pain and swelling.
Studies conducted in recent years confirm the presence of bacteria or their particles in synovial fluid and/or synovial joints affected by inflammation, bringing into question the view that reactive arthritis is sterile [4, 6, 14, 25, 29-31].
Gout is a disease in which there is defect within the uric acid metabolism, causing an excess build-up of uric acid and urates (salt) within the bloodstream and the synovial joints (Concise Medical Dictionary 2002).
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease characterized by persistent inflammation of synovial joints with pain, often leading to joint destruction and disability.
Synovial chondromatosis, or synovial osteochondromatosis, is a rare pathology of the synovial joints. It most commonly affects the knee, hip, elbow, and shoulder.
It is well known that human synovial joints function with an extremely low friction coefficient.
OA is an idiopathic disease of synovial joints, characterised by articular cartilage degeneration, thickening and inflammation of the synovial membrane, thickening of the subchondral plate and osteophyte formation (Martel and Pelletier, 1999).