Synchronous Cancer

Currently there is no consensus on the definition of synchronous cancer. Among the proposed definitions are
(1) Two or more histologically distinct simultaneously detected malignancies
(2) Two or more histologically distinct malignancies diagnosed during the same hospital admission
(3) Two or more histologically distinct malignancies arising in the same site, following each other in sequence by less than 2 months
References in periodicals archive ?
The synchronous cancer is defined as two or more malignancies identified simultaneously or within 6 months of initial diagnosis, whereas the metachronous cancer is defined as a second primary lesion detected after 6 months of diagnosis of first cancer.
The secondary outcome was synchronous cancer, metachronous cancer, complete resection, adverse events, hospital stay, hospital cost, quality of life, 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate, and 3-year survival rate.
Synchronous cancer refers to the malignant lesions distinctly separated by a microscopically normal gastric wall and ruled out from local extension or metastasis [9].
The inclusion of bronchoscopy in the workup (i.e., triple endoscopy) is controversial in patients with a normal chest CT because the detection rate for an endobronchial synchronous cancer is on the order of less the 1%.
While the entire colon can be manually examined to assess for synchronous lesions at the time of laparotomy, Heald and Bussey reported that up to 69% of synchronous cancer lesions could not be detected by palpation of the colon [30].
(18) In Vitale's series, a synchronous cancer was detected in three patients (9.6%), hence changing the initial surgical plan.
In one study multifocality was found in 18% of synchronous cancers on both sides and it was suggested that the presence of multi centric tumours was a risk factor for bilateral breast cancer.
This has been quantified as up to 3.6% per year and leads to excess mortality of 5.2% per year.12 Synchronous cancers occur in 4% of head and neck cancers.9
Synchronous cancers are defined as malignant tumors that occur simultaneously.
The GI tract was the site of 70% of the synchronous cancers, while the majority of the metachronous cancers occurred in the lung (21%) and prostate (19%).
According to the literature, most patients with synchronous cancers present symptoms characteristic of endometrial cancer.
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