synaptic plasticity

(redirected from Synaptic efficacy)

synaptic plasticity

 Physiology Malleability present in synapses in various forms–eg, presynaptic inhibition, homosynaptic depression, presynaptic facilitation and modulation of transmitter release by tonic depolarization of sensory neuron. See Neuroplasticity, Nitric oxide.
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Single spine stimulation by two-photon activation (uncaging) of glutamate has revealed that the uncaging-evoked AMPA-R current through the stimulated spine is strongly correlated with spine head size, which supports the hypothesis that dendritic spine size is a key determinant of synaptic efficacy. (14) Crucially, dendritic spines are highly dynamic and undergo structural enlargement and shrinkage (Fig.
[28.] Markram H, Lubke J, Frotscher M, Sakmann B (1997) Regulation of synaptic efficacy by coincidence of postsynaptic APs and EPSPs.
Long-term potentiation (LTP), a long-lasting increase in synaptic efficacy, is widely accepted as a basic mechanism for learning and memory.
To bring the ultimate goal of developing a brain-machine-spinal-cord interface (BMSI) device for functional recovery after SCI to fruition, this project will establish the appropriate parameters for stimulating the spinal cord and increasing synaptic efficacy using brain activity after SCI.
Further, monocarboxylates [38-41] and KBs [39, 41] can maintain synaptic efficacy and plasticity, the basis of cognitive function.
On the other hand, dysfunction of hippocampal synaptic efficacy is known to be related to cognitive impairment in AD [7, 8] as well as in aging [9-11], and synaptic efficacy has protective effects against AD [12,13].
"In our model, even weak and spatially localized input from the hippocampus influenced the spatiotemporal pattern of slow oscillations and led to a persistent change of synaptic efficacy between neurons," Wei said.
In the striatum, the net effect of chronic ethanol has been less well studied, but the work to date indicates that ethanol exposure brings about an LTP-like enhancement of synaptic efficacy at glutamatergic synapses that transmit signals to striatal MSNs.
According to the calcium control hypothesis, basal levels of calcium concentration do not lead to any changes in synaptic efficacy but modest and high levels of calcium concentration lead to LTP and excitotoxity stage respectively [29].
Increases in phosphorylation of the extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK), a subfamily of MAPKs alter synaptic efficacy and learning and memory.
It has been demonstrated that the minor alteration in synaptic efficacy happened earlier than the anatomical abnormality in neurodegenerative disorders [23,24].
This property, known as synaptic efficacy, can be adjusted by the brain as part of the process of encoding information.