Successive levels of nesting in the tree denote smaller and smaller sets of species, each of which shares a given set of synapomorphic
4% divergence), and no nucleotide substitutions are synapomorphic
for any pair of populations.
The 10 envelope amino acid residues synapomorphic
in FeLV-Pco and FeLV-945 included 2 in variable region A and 3 in the proline-rich region (Figures 2, 5).
Haddad and Lyle (2008) consequently rejected the complete absence of leg spines as a synapomorphic
characteristic of the subfamily.
In Richards' (1978) key, the punctation on the pronotum, scutum, scutellum, and propodeum are important diagnostic features to recognize Synoeca species, and some of these features are synapomorphic
in our cladogram.
Large prosomal exocrine scent glands, also called defensive or repugnatorial glands, are an important synapomorphic
character of Opiliones (Martens 1978).
Our aim is to assess whether pollen characters can now be considered synapomorphic
and diagnostic, fitting and supporting the current hypotheses of relationship within Arctotideae.
This group of genera can be recognised by several synapomorphic
characters that may (once all the genera have been revised) support the monophyly of this group within Corinnidae, be it at tribal or subfamilial level: strongly spined femora I, and strong ventral leg spines on the anterior tibiae and metatarsi; procurved eye rows, posterior row nearly straight; broad male palpal cymbium with dense dorsal setal mat (= cymbial scopula) and modified setae; male palpal tegulum with a short, fine median apophysis; and simple female genitalic structure (see Lessert 1923; Lawrence 1937, 1952; Haddad 2007).
it is probable that most of these features are synapomorphic
for this clade.
Even though Armas & Marcano-Fondeur (1992) suggested that reductive neobothriotaxy has occurred independently more than once within Microtityus, Teruel (2000) rejected such an hypothesis arguing that: (i) the loss of trichobothria is an infrequent phenomenon in the family Buthidae and when it occurs in various species of the same genus, it is a synapomorphic
condition; (ii) the M.
The Heteromyzidae (= Heleomyzidae and Sphaeroceridae) and the Chyromyidae share synapomorphic
characters that justify retaining the latter family in closer phylogenetic proximity to the former rather than to any other acalyptrate family, but there are also characters that the Chyromyidae share with Ephydroidea and Opomyzoidea.
The remaining main characters used by Webster (1993) that were mapped on to the phylogeny are either synapomorphic
for only a small group of species, such as stamen number (Fig.