sedula could also have a copper-resistance mechanism involving PolyP, the putative PPX gene, and [H.sup.+]-phosphate symporters
. In the present report, the [PPX.sub.Msed] enzyme from M.
Since both sodium ions and glucose are transported in the same direction across the membrane they are also called symporters
More specifically, uptake1 transporter binds with high-affinity to [Na.sup.+]/[Cl.sup.-]-dependent unidirectional symporters
such as Net (Slc6a2), Dat (Slc6a3), and Sert (Slc6a4), while uptake2 transporters show lower affinity.
Main phloridzin pharmacological mechanism of action, leading to its antidiabetic effect, is to produce renal glycosuria and block intestinal glucose absorption through inhibition of sodium-glucose symporters
in kidneys and small intestine .
In the renal cortex they confirmed differences in expression of apoptosis-inducing factor, mitochondrion-associated, 1 (AIFM1), alpha-1-microglobulin/bikunin precursor (AMBP), apolipoprotein E (APOE), cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), ephrin-B1 (EFNB1), NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) complex I, assembly factor 1 (NDUFAF1), peroxiredoxin 5 (PRDX5), REN, renin binding protein (RENBP), solute carrier family 13 (sodium/sulfate symporters
), member 1 (SLC13A1), syntaxin 4 (STX4), and troponin T type 2 (cardiac) (TNNT2) mRNAs, and the miRNAs hsa-miR-21, hsa-miR-126, hsa-miR-181a, hsa-miR-196a, hsamiR-451, hsa-miR-638, and hsa-miR-663.
Once an excess of symporters
was implanted in the membrane of the cancer cells, they administered a radioactive form of iodine (either iodine-123 or iodine-131).
Since thyroid cancer cells have a lower expression of sodium-iodine symporters
, and therefore have a decreased ability to concentrate iodine compared with normal thyroid tissue,4 better diagnostic accuracy is obtained from the radioiodine scan when the patient is administered thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).
Their breakthrough research, featured as the cover story in a recent issue of Molecular Cell, describes the precise molecular and biochemical structure of drug targets known as neurotransmitter-sodium symporters
(NSSs), and how cells use them to enable neural signaling in the brain.
This does not mean that the patient was developing hypothyroidism but that the brain was stimulating the body to make more sodium iodide symporters
The stilbene, SITS, blocks not only bicarbonate transport via [Na.sup.+]/[[HCO.sup.-].sub.3] symporters
(Curci et al., 1987; Fitz et al., 1989; Wiederholt et al., 1985), but also [Cl.sup.-]/[[HCO.sup.-].sub.3] exchangers (Stewart et al., 1989).
ANME-2d only harbor gene domains that encode Sat and assimilatory ATP sulfurylase, APS kinase, and sodium/sulfate symporters
, which were not present in ANME-2a (Table S1).
The transport phenomenon is carried out by different carrier proteins, channel proteins, antiporters and symporters
. Maintaining cellular [Na.sup.+]/[K.sup.+] homeostasis is pivotal for plant survival in saline environments.