The fresh roots were separated into two parts: one was immediately stored in a freezer (-20[degrees]C) for further analysis of Cu in the apoplast and symplast
, and the other, along with the shoots of black oats, was dried in an oven with forced air at 65[degrees]C until constant mass.
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Xylem sap pH increase: A drought signal received at the apoplastic face of the guard cell that involves the suppression of saturable abscisic acid uptake by the epidermal symplast
. Plant Physiol., 113: 559-573.
Minerals enter the root by active transport into the symplast
of epidermal cells and move toward and into the stele through the plasmodesmata connecting the cells.
Marur (1999) verified that the reduction in osmotic potential is a consequence of the net accumulation of solutes in the symplast
, resulting in reduced sugar content in response to reduced water potential.
Once the metal is bioavailable to the plant, the entry of metal ions inside the plant, either through symplast
(intercellular) or apoplast (extracellular), depends on the type of metal and the plant species.
Two different ways of the small-distance motion of the fluids are present in plants, namely direct intracellular transport through the plasmodesmata (thin channels between the cytoplasmic volumes of the adjacent cells with diameters [d.sub.pd] = 0.04.06 [micro]m and lengths [L.sub.pd] = 0.5-1 [micro]m ), which is called symplast
transport, and the mass transfer through the cell membranes into the extracellular space and then through the pores of the cell walls (apoplast transport).
Aidid SB, Okamoto H (1992) Effects of lead, cadmium and zinc on the electric membrane potential at the xylem: symplast
interface and cell elongation of Impatiens balsamina.
volume, turgot, stomatal conductance and growth in relation to osmotic and elastic adjustment in droughted sugarcane.
Ammonium is often superior to N[O.sub.3.sup.-] in stimulating P uptake due to its effect on root morphology and on soil P solubility as well as to its specific influence on the transfer of P across the root symplast
(Riley and Barber 1971 ; Leonce and Miller 1966).
It is stored as starch in the network of living cell contents in the xylem called the symplast
. Starch is a chain of sugars linked together.
One of the Al tolerance mechanisms in plants is through the inhibition of trivalent Al ions accumulation in the symplast
and/or minimized the interaction between Al and the cell wall and/or plasma membrane or other target in the apoplast.