: the hidden face of Constantin Merezhkowsky.
In fact, according to the theory of symbiogenesis
, which is increasingly supported by scientific evidence, chloroplasts, the organelles responsible for photosynthesis, are nothing more than endosymbiotic cyanobacteria (Margulis, 1981; Margulis & Bermudes, 1985; Sapp et al., 2002).
Species miscegenation has been central to Butler's vision right from her early work when she embodies the biologists' idea of "symbiogenesis
" (where species cooperation rather than competition is the agent of all evolution) in her treatment of species mixing (Laurel Bollinger, "Symbiogenesis
, Selfhood, and Science Fiction", Science Fiction Studies 37.
We propose that now is a critical moment for primary care to activate the magic of symbiogenesis
, the formation and emergence of new organisms through symbiotic mergers, through once-individual life-forms teaming up to become larger wholes (Margnlis, 1998; McCallum, 2008).
is the resulting evolutionary change that occurs by permanent integration of symbionts.
He documents how Butler's texts, ranging from her early Kindred to her final novel, Fledgling, resonate with the biological writings of Lynn Margulis and Dorian Sagan on symbiogenesis
(the evolutionary process whereby two different organisms merge together as a single living system), and he wraps up his book by reading Butler's science fiction narratives as symbiogenetic models for an ecologically sensitive, scientifically savvy, philosophically attuned posthumanism that sees "the human metamorphosed by reconnection to the worldly and systemic conditions of its evolutionary possibility" (196).
I hope this work contributes to feminist theory by scrutinizing the reception of symbiogenesis
theory within neo-Darwinism.
Gunter rushes through six: quantum evolution, thermodynamic evolution, chaos evolution, neo-LamarckiEmism, Baldwinian evolution, and symbiogenesis
. Dorion Sagan and Lynn Margulis contribute three essays between them: Sagan on 'Evolution, Complexity, and Energy Flow' (Gunter's 'thermodynamic evolution'), Margulis on the Gaia hypothesis, and both on symbiogenesis
, and various forms of stress also generate variations, both in sexual and asexual organisms.
Rutz: Theories and models in symbiogenesis
: A reply to nature and the introduction of environmental noises, Nonlinear Analysis, 63(2005), 5-7, e131-e142.
One aspect of this harmony is that throughout the Quartet L'Engle is very much in tune with biologist Margulis's idea of symbiogenesis
, of networking and cooperation rather than competition as the basic principle of life.
A scholar with degrees in math, biology, ecology and evolution, Fuller can knowledgably chat about science's most intriguing ideas - chaos theory, fractal geometry, self-organizing systems, symbiogenesis
- all topics under the broad umbrella of the emerging science of complexity.