But, unlike most gastropods, they are primarily suspension feeders
(Orton 1912, Declerck 1995, Collin 2001, Shumway et al.
Dr Jakob Vinther, a lecturer in macroevolution at the University of Bristol, said: "The fact that large, free-swimming suspension feeders
roamed the oceans tells us a lot about the ecosystem.
Active suspension feeders
must pump water across their filtering structures to feed, which incurs a metabolic cost (Jorgensen, 1966; Wildish and Kristmanson, 1997).
The importance of boundary-layer flows in supplying phytoplankton to the benthic suspension feeder
, Mytilus edulis L.
Thus suspension feeding preceded the limpet-shaped shell, the latter evolving as an adaptation for resistance to dislodgement in the sedentary suspension feeder
1994), and certainly influence the rates of food capture by Metridium senile, a passive suspension feeder
preferred communities dominated by F.
Despite sponges being grouped with other suspension feeders
in previous FD assessments, several studies have clearly identified the diversity of functional roles that sponges perform and the food they consume (Gili and Coma, 1998; Wulff, 2006; Bell, 2008).
Macrozoobenthos was classified into feeding guilds--deposit feeders, suspension feeders
, and herbivores--based on the literature (Bonsdorff & Pearson, 1999) and field observations.
These included three suspension feeders
, one carnivorous polychaete, and four polychaete deposit feeders.
Slippersnails are protandric hermaphrodites; are found commonly in stacks attached to rocks, shells, and other hard substrates; and are voracious epibenthic suspension feeders
(Gosner 1971, Newell & Kofoed 1977a, Newell & Kofoed 1977b, Weiss 1995).
KEY WORDS: benthic-pelagic coupling, bivalves, denitrification, eutrophication, extractive aquaculture, nutrient cycling, nutrient enrichment, nutrient trading, suspension feeders