supersaturated solution


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Related to supersaturated solution: Unsaturated solution

solution

 [so-loo´shun]
1. a homogeneous mixture of one or more substances (solutes) dispersed molecularly in a sufficient quantity of dissolving medium (solvent).
2. in pharmacology, a liquid preparation of one or more soluble chemical substances, which are usually dissolved in water. For names of specific solutions, see under the name.
3. the process of dissolving or disrupting.
4. a loosening or separation.

Preparation of Solutions. Formula for preparing solutions from a pure drug:


For example, to prepare 2000 mL of a 2 per cent solution from boric acid crystals, the proportion would be

Formula for preparing solutions from stock solutions:

For example, to prepare 1000 mL of a 2 per cent solution from a 4 per cent stock solution, the proportion would be
aqueous solution one in which water is used as the solvent.
BCG solution an aqueous suspension of bacille Calmette-Guérin for instillation into the bladder to activate the immune system in treatment of superficial bladder cancers. It reduces the risk of a subsequent bladder cancer developing, although the exact mechanism of action is unknown.
buffer solution one that resists appreciable change in its hydrogen ion concentration (pH) when acid or alkali is added to it.
colloid solution (colloidal solution) imprecise term for colloid (def. 3).
hyperbaric solution one having a greater specific gravity than a standard of reference.
hypertonic solution one having an osmotic pressure greater than that of a standard of reference.
hypobaric solution one having a specific gravity less than that of a standard of reference.
hypotonic solution one having an osmotic pressure less than that of a standard of reference.
isobaric solution a solution having the same specific gravity as a standard of reference.
isotonic solution one having an osmotic pressure the same as that of a standard of reference.
molar solution a solution in which each liter contains 1 mole of the dissolved substance; designated 1 M. The concentration of other solutions may be expressed in relation to that of molar solutions as tenth-molar (0.1 M), etc.
normal solution a solution in which each liter contains 1 equivalent weight of the dissolved substance; designated 1 N.
ophthalmic solution a sterile solution, free from foreign particles, for instillation into the eye.
saturated solution one in which the solvent has taken up all of the dissolved substance that it can hold in solution.
sclerosing solution one containing an irritant substance (sclerosing agent) that will cause obliteration of a space, as in sclerotherapy.
standard solution one that contains in each liter a definitely stated amount of reagent; usually expressed in terms of normality (equivalent weights of solute per liter of solution) or molarity (moles of solute per liter of solution).
supersaturated solution an unstable solution containing more of the solute than it can permanently hold.
volumetric solution one that contains a specific quantity of solvent per stated unit of volume.

su·per·sat·u·rat·ed so·lu·tion

a solution containing more of the solid than the liquid would ordinarily dissolve; it is made by heating the solvent when the substance is added, and on cooling the latter is retained without precipitation; addition of a crystal or solid of any kind usually results in precipitation of the excess solute, leaving a saturated solution.

su·per·sat·u·rat·ed so·lu·tion

(sū'pĕr-sach'ŭr-ā-tĕd sŏ-lū'shŭn)
A solution containing more of the solid than the liquid would ordinarily dissolve; it is made by heating the solvent when the substance is added, and on cooling the latter is retained without precipitation; addition of a crystal or solid of any kind usually results in precipitation of the excess solute, leaving a saturated solution.
References in periodicals archive ?
Dehlinger in Geisler [5] has talked of certain groups of atoms, complexes, arising in the supersaturated solution which have the capacity to grow, and only with time and in certain regions do they finally attain the concentration and space lattice of the equilibrium precipitate.
In the course of UA crystallization from a supersaturated solution, admixtures of other compounds are incorporated into the expanding crystal lattice.
In the first stage, the polymer/gas solution formation is accomplished by saturating a polymer under a high gas pressure, forming a single-phase supersaturated solution governed by the gas dissolution in the polymer matrix which is a function of pressure and, at a lesser extent, of temperature.
The resulting chemical superheat attributed to the supersaturated solution can be readily predicted by knowledge of solubility data.
The growth of a cluster in the supersaturated solution depends on kinetic events within the liquid.
A typical polymer foaming process involves several steps: 1) the contact and dissolution under an elevated pressure of a gas blowing agent in the polymer; 2) the nucleation of a dense population of gas clusters in the supersaturated solution upon the sudden release of pressure to the ambient pressure; 3) the growth of the nucleated bubbles in the polymer to their ultimate equilibrium size; and 4) the quenching of the foamed material to permanently fix the structure.
[20] proposed a two-fluid model of homogeneous crystallization of calcium carbonate in highly supersaturated solutions. Liu et al.
* Grow crystals using various methods, such as slowly evaporating or cooling supersaturated solutions. Students can experiment with the variables, for example, the compound, the saturation level of the solution and the rates of evaporation or cooling.
Guy, "Stabilization of supersaturated solutions of a lipophilic drug for dermal delivery," International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol.
Supersaturated solutions contain dissolved sugar at a higher ratio than is normally possible at a given temperature.