superantigen


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superantigen

 [soo″per-an´tĭ-jen]
any of a group of powerful antigens occurring in various bacteria and viruses that bind outside of the normal T cell receptor site and are able to react with multiple T cell receptor molecules, thus activating T cells nonspecifically. Included are staphylococcal enterotoxins and toxins causing toxic shock syndrome and exfoliative dermatitis.

su·per·an·ti·gen

(sū'pĕr-an'ti-jen),
An antigen that interacts with the T-cell receptor in a domain outside the antigen recognition site. This interaction induces the activation of larger numbers of T cells than are induced by antigens that are presented in the antigen recognition site leading to the release of numerous cytokines. A single superantigen may potentially activate as much as 15% of the lymphocytic repertoire.
See also: antigen.

superantigen

One of a class of molecules that react with a substantial proportion of the whole population of T cells in the body. They include Staphylococcus aureus ENTEROTOXINS. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) is a powerful T-cell mitogen and can give rise to the release of large quantities of CYTOKINES and LEUKOTRIENES. This is believed to be one of the bases of the TOXIC SHOCK SYNDROME.
References in periodicals archive ?
Dissemination of the phage-associated novel superantigen gene speL in recent invasive and noninvasive Streptococcus pyogenes M3/T3 isolates in Japan.
The presence of superantigen genes in MRSA isolates from hospital surfaces and healthy individuals implies the possibility of increased bacterial dissemination and more severe infections.
The development of these foamy macrophages is thought to be triggered by cytokines from the inflamed intima or by a superantigen. Therefore, inflammatory reactions are thought to be important in the pathogenesis of this disease.12 Unlike other types of xanthomatous disorders, patients with XD usually show normal lipid profiles.
Superantigen immune stimulation evokes epithelial monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and RANTES production.
Protection against bacterial superantigen staphylococca-lenterotoxin B by passive vaccination.
We evaluated the assay by analyzing V[beta] gene expression in lymphocytes stimulated with the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) and by analyzing cDNA from patients with bladder cancer or malignant melanoma.
Delcourt M, Peumans WJ, Wanger MC, Truffa-Bachi P (1996) V beta specific deletion of mature thymocytes induced by the plant superantigen Urtica dioica agglutinin, Cellular Immunol 168: 158-164
In 1994, investigators seeking the cause of this betrayal implicated a superantigen, a protein or protein fragment with the ability to stimulate the activity of a large number of normally quiescent immune cells.
Beachey, have discovered that the M protein is a "superantigen" because of its ability to stimulate immune cells and provoke a powerful immune response.
(30) Despite the fact that these genes are carried by mobile genetic elements and, thus, could theoretically be present or absent in different isolates of a specific lineage, the existence of a correlation of a specific clone type and superantigen profiles, in a hospital or in a geographical area, should be investigated in order to trace potential staphylococcal virulence syndrome-associated isolates.
The superantigen Enterotoxin B from Staphylococcus aureus (SEB, 0.25 [micro]g/mL, SIGMA-Aldrich) was used as positive control.
High prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus cultivation and superantigen production in patients with psoriasis.