Dissemination of the phage-associated novel superantigen
gene speL in recent invasive and noninvasive Streptococcus pyogenes M3/T3 isolates in Japan.
The presence of superantigen
genes in MRSA isolates from hospital surfaces and healthy individuals implies the possibility of increased bacterial dissemination and more severe infections.
The development of these foamy macrophages is thought to be triggered by cytokines from the inflamed intima or by a superantigen
. Therefore, inflammatory reactions are thought to be important in the pathogenesis of this disease.12 Unlike other types of xanthomatous disorders, patients with XD usually show normal lipid profiles.
immune stimulation evokes epithelial monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and RANTES production.
Protection against bacterial superantigen
staphylococca-lenterotoxin B by passive vaccination.
We evaluated the assay by analyzing V[beta] gene expression in lymphocytes stimulated with the superantigen
staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) and by analyzing cDNA from patients with bladder cancer or malignant melanoma.
Delcourt M, Peumans WJ, Wanger MC, Truffa-Bachi P (1996) V beta specific deletion of mature thymocytes induced by the plant superantigen
Urtica dioica agglutinin, Cellular Immunol 168: 158-164
In 1994, investigators seeking the cause of this betrayal implicated a superantigen
, a protein or protein fragment with the ability to stimulate the activity of a large number of normally quiescent immune cells.
Beachey, have discovered that the M protein is a "superantigen
" because of its ability to stimulate immune cells and provoke a powerful immune response.
(30) Despite the fact that these genes are carried by mobile genetic elements and, thus, could theoretically be present or absent in different isolates of a specific lineage, the existence of a correlation of a specific clone type and superantigen
profiles, in a hospital or in a geographical area, should be investigated in order to trace potential staphylococcal virulence syndrome-associated isolates.
Enterotoxin B from Staphylococcus aureus (SEB, 0.25 [micro]g/mL, SIGMA-Aldrich) was used as positive control.
High prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus cultivation and superantigen
production in patients with psoriasis.