NASA explained: "Sunspots
have been rare on the sun since the dawn of the current Solar Minimum, a period of low solar activity.
During times of solar activity, many sunspots
can be observed on the Sun.
Joten Okamoto (NAOJ Fellow) and Takashi Sakurai (Professor Emeritus of NAOJ) were analyzing data taken by the Solar Optical Telescope onboard HINODE, when they noticed the signature of strongly magnetized iron atoms in a sunspot
. Surprisingly the data indicated a magnetic field strength of 6,250 gauss.
Caption: Figure 6: Wavelet coherence spectrum of monthly sunspots
and monthly global temperatures.
As shown in Figures 5 and 6, the time series of sunspots
are decomposed into 6 IMFs by VMD, and 6 IMFs and 1 residual component are obtained by EMD decomposition.
Using 31 years of observations, they found that the structure of the Sun's surface layer, where sunspots
form, changed markedly in 1994.
In this paper, the sunspot
number smoothing monthly mean time series is derived from the sunspot
index data center of the Royal Observatory Belgium (http://sidc.oma.be/silso/ datafiles).
This suggests, perhaps, that the SSA during 1917 and 1918 (associated with SCI5) possibly is due to a smaller percentage of large area sunspots
having SSA > 1,000), while SSA during 1959 (SC19) and 1982 (SC21) possibly is due to a larger percentage of large area sunspots
was a natural progression from Neptune Blue, which also has an astronomical basis, and is a series of poems that give the Sun a voice.
can be the size of Earth or as big as Jupiter.
The data (smoothed monthly mean sunspots
, SMMS) were downloaded from ftp://ftp.ngdc.noaa.gov/, that is the web side of the National Geophysical Data Center.
The group continued to develop and was type Eac on Aug 14 with the leading and middle penumbral sunspots
being the largest.