The covalent attachment of a small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) to substrate protein, a process that is biochemically analogous to, but functionally distinct from, ubiquitination; sumoylation is critical to many different biological processes—e.g., protein localisation and stability, transcriptional activities, nucleocytoplasmic signalling and transport, genome replication, and regulation of gene expression
References in periodicals archive ?
She discovered SUMOylation and promoted the SUMO field through key findings, seminal reviews, methods development, dissemination of protocols and reagents, as well as teaching and mentoring the next generation of scientists.
Tau is also extensively modified posttranslationally and has been reported to be modified by phosphorylation, acetylation, glycosylation, glycation, deamidation, isomerization, nitration, methylation, ubiquitylation, sumoylation, and truncation.
Recently, researchers led by John Hallenbeck found that a cellular process called SUMOylation goes into overdrive in a certain species of ground squirrel during hibernation.
Thyroid hormone receptor sumoylation is required for preadipocyte differentiation and proliferation.
Ehrlichia chaffeensis exploits host SUMOylation pathways to mediate effector-host interactions and promote intracellular survival.
According to the information on the biological processes and signaling pathways in the GO database, the NCBI Entrez Gene database, and the KEGG pathway database, the roles of the TFs/proteins in the core network biomarkers are projected into three pathways: the SUMOylation, ubiquitination, and proteasome (SUP) pathway; the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling pathway; and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) signaling pathway.
On the other hand, proteins which regulate the protein modification processes such as folding, sumoylation, ubiquitination and phosphatase activity also displayed significant alteration in the expression level upon intervention with MNQ.
The SUMOylation is a dynamic and reversible process regulated by both conjugation and de-conjugation enzymes via a three-step process and three enzyme reactions, E1 (SUMO-activation enzyme) (activation), E2 (SUMO conjugation enzyme) (conjugation), and E3 (SUMO ligase) (ligation).
In addition to excitotoxicity and oxidative stress, other neuronal pathways have garnered attention as possible causes of cell death: nitric oxide, intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis, ubiquitin-proteosome, sumoylation, autophagy, and so on (many of these are reviewed in [34]).
Inhibition of lung cancer growth by betulinic acid has been attributed to decreases in Sp1 levels via increasing the sumoylation of Sp1 [43].
PIASy-mediated Tip60 sumoylation regulates p53-induced autophagy.
Further modification events, like sumoylation, regulate the activity of the final transcription factor complex.