At first difficult to comprehend, certain of the allegations gained credibility once a number of Sudanese with ties to the Sudan
UN Mission were implicated, then indicted on charges of involvement in the World Trade Center bombing.
closed its borders with South Sudan
soon after the latter seceded from it following a self-determination referendum in 2011.
In 1997, the United States imposed comprehensive economic, trade, and financial sanctions against Sudan
due to its support for international terrorism, ongoing efforts to destabilize neighboring governments, and the persistence of human rights violations.
An agreement has been difficult to reach, and a major point of contention was the amount that Sudan
would charge South Sudan
for the right to use its pipelines.
The UN secretary general said Sudan
, for its part, had to "immediately stop shelling and bombing South Sudanese territory and withdraw its forces from disputed territories, in particular Abyei.
The economic future of the two countries, however, remains intertwined because South Sudan
, which houses oil reserves, must pump it through two pipelines that run through Sudan
government personnel living and working in South Sudan
Security Council diplomats say that action against Sudan
, including sanctions, is being resisted by China, which buys Sudan
's oil; Russia, which has helped Sudan
develop its oil industry and has sold weapons to the government, and Qatar, the Council's Arab representative.
The task force, for one, advocates a targeted approach, in which--to avoid divestment--companies with Sudan
operations must not provide significant financial support to the Sudanese government, they must provide support to disaffected residents of Sudan
, and they must take substantial action to halt the genocide.
It was a thrill for me to be there, as one who has known Sudan
Some of what the authors included is from their personal knowledge that some foreign scholars of Sudan
miss, so it is a fresh and deeper reference of this period.
ruminantium, in addition to the Um Banein strain, is present in Sudan