These reactions generate acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and succinyl-CoA
, which are involved in carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids metabolism (Hamano et al., 1999, Haas, 1988).
Propionyl-CoA is then converted by mitochondrial PCC to methylmalonyl-CoA, which is converted to succinyl-CoA
by MCEE and MUT.
The [alpha]-Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) catalyzes the reaction of [alpha]- Ketoglutarate with Coenzym A to succinyl-CoA
under reduction of NAD to NADH.
tuberculatum venom can be grouped basically into proteins involved in insect metabolism (annexin B9, nucleoside diphosphate kinase; aconitate hydratase; superoxide dismutase; triose phosphate isomerase; glyceraldehyde-3phosphate dehydrogenase; succinyl-CoA
ligase; fructosebisphosphate aldolase; arginine kinase; citrate synthase; enolase; ATP synthase; 4-hydroxybutyrate coenzyme A transferase; medium-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase); transport protein (transferrin); and structural proteins (cyclophilin, actin, and chitinase).
The 5 proteins with increased expression levels were identified as type II peroxiredoxin 1, ATP-specific succinyl-CoA
synthetase beta subunit, rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 1, heme-binding protein, and phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 1, and the 11 proteins with decreased expression levels were identified as profilin-2, tubulin beta-5 chain, alpha-internexin, ketimine reductase mu-crystallin, L-lactate dehydrogenase B chain isoform 1, ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1, isoform CRA_a, proteasome subunit alpha type-3, N(G),N(G)-dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1, ferritin heavy chain, translationally controlled tumor protein, and prohibitin (Table 1).
TCA cycle was strongly disturbed since (iso)citrate, aconitate, a-ketoglutarate, succinyl-CoA
, and malate concentrations were increased, and fumarate and succinate concentrations were decreased in PAD (Figure 1(b)).
Vitamin [B.sub.12] [cobalamin (Cbl)] plays an essential role both in the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA
and in the synthesis of methionine (Met) from homocysteine (Hcy) (Fig.
cereus 14579 genome contained all the alternative pathway genes involved for the conversion of succinyl-CoA
from TCA cycle into P4HB/PH3B/P(3HB-co-4HB) .
[sup.14]C-labeled acyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA, and succinyl-CoA
) was purchased from PerkinElmer (Waltham, MA, USA).
Functional mut converts methylmalonic acid-CoA to succinyl-CoA
. This reaction is a critical part of the catabolic pathway for all odd-chain fatty acids as well as the amino acids isoleucine, valine, methionine, and threonine.
Synthesis of methionine and succinyl-CoA
depends on the coenzyme activity of cobalamin.
Figure 2 showed that enzymes related to glycolysis (fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (GI: 27469074), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GI: 27467475), enolase (GI: 27467479), pyruvate kinase (GI: 27468291)), the TCA cycle (succinyl-CoA
synthase (GI: 27467842), and isocitrate dehydrogenase (GI: 27468288)) were downregulated at the post-exponential phase.