succinic acid

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cycle

 [si´k'l]
a succession or recurring series of events.
cardiac cycle a complete cardiac movement, or heart beat, including systole, diastole, and the intervening pause.
Cardiac cycle. From Applegate, 2000.
cell cycle the cycle of biochemical and morphological events occurring in a reproducing cell population; it consists of the S phase, occurring toward the end of interphase, in which DNA is synthesized; the G2 phase, a relatively quiescent period; the M phase, consisting of the four phases of mitosis; and the G1 phase of interphase, which lasts until the S phase of the next cycle.
citric acid cycle tricarboxylic acid cycle.
estrous cycle the recurring periods of estrus in adult females of most mammalian species and the correlated changes in the reproductive tract from one period to another.
hair cycle the successive phases of the production and then loss of hair, consisting of anagen, catagen, and telogen.
menstrual cycle see menstrual cycle.
ovarian cycle the sequence of physiologic changes in the ovary involved in ovulation; see also ovulation and reproduction.
reproductive cycle the cycle of physiologic changes in the reproductive organs, from the time of fertilization of the ovum through gestation and childbirth; see also reproduction.
sex cycle (sexual cycle)
1. the physiologic changes that recur regularly in the reproductive organs of nonpregnant female mammals.
2. the period of sexual reproduction in an organism that also reproduces asexually.
tricarboxylic acid cycle the cyclic metabolic mechanism by which the complete oxidation of the acetyl portion of acetyl-coenzyme A is effected; the process is the chief source of mammalian energy, during which carbon chains of sugars, fatty acids, and amino acids are metabolized to yield carbon dioxide, water, and high-energy phosphate bonds. Called also citric acid cycle, Krebs cycle, and TCA cycle.
 Central pathways of metabolism: How the body produces energy from the energy-containing nutrients using the tricarboxylic acid cycle. From Davis and Sherer, 1994.
urea cycle a cyclic series of reactions that produce urea; it is a major route for removal of the ammonia produced in the metabolism of amino acids in the liver and kidney.

suc·cin·ic ac·id

(sŭk-sin'ik as'id),
1,4 butanedioic acid, an intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle; several of its salts have been variously used in medicine.
References in periodicals archive ?
In skin, "Colar Elche" and "Cuello Dama Blanco" contained the highest levels of citric and malic acids (0.9 and 0.8 g per kg of FW for citric acid and 3.6 and 3.4 g per kg of FW for malic acid) while "Tres Voltas L'Any" and "Colar Elche" contained the highest concentrations of succinic acid (2.9 and 2.6 g per kg of FW, resp.).
Tricarboxylic acid standards [glutamic acid ([greater than or equal to] 99%), citric acid ([greater than or equal to] 99%), isocitric acid ([greater than or equal to] 93%), [alpha]-ketoglutaric acid ([greater than or equal to] 99%), malic acid ([greater than or equal to] 99%), oxaloacetic acid ([greater than or equal to] 97%), succinic acid ([greater than or equal to] 9%), and fumaric acid ([greater than or equal to] 99%)] were purchased from Sigma[R] (Sigma-Aldrich Company Ltd., Dorset, UK).
A standard curve of each analyte (glutamic acid, citric acid, isocitric acid, [alpha]-ketoglutaric acid, malic acid, oxaloacetic acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, and lactic acid) was produced from stock solutions (1mg/ml) in the relevant matrix (synthetic urine, 5% fatty acid-free HSA, cell culture medium acidified with 0.2% formic acid).
"Increasing demand from polyurethanes, plastics, and food packaging driving the global succinic acid market"
The global succinic acid market is projected to reach USD 701.0 million by 2021, registering a CAGR of 28.0% from 2016 to 2021.
Production of conventional succinic acid involves oxidation of butane.
MSG, disodium 5'-inosine monophosphate (IMP), disodium 5'-guanosine monophosphate (GMP), sodium chloride, lactic acid, propionic acid and succinic acid were quantified in the cheeses.
The operation also produces a number of by-products, including dibasic esters (of adipic, glutaric and succinic acids) which are used as environmentally friendly solvents and as intermediates for polymers.