martingale

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martingale

a leather strap running from the girth to the reins or the noseband for the purpose of restricting the movements of the horse's head. There are many designs. The common ones are the standing martingale, which is attached to the noseband, and the running martingale, which is divided in two, each of which has a ring through which one of the reins passes.
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The expectation for net income according to Ball and Watts (1972, 680) is that accounting net "income can be characterized on average as a submartingale or some similar process.