subendocardial


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subendocardial

 [sub″en-do-kahr´de-al]
beneath the endocardium.

sub·en·do·car·di·al

(sŭb'en-dō-kar'dē-ăl),
Beneath the endocardium.
References in periodicals archive ?
because only 43% patients with subendocardial ischemia (ST elevation in aVR and diffuse ST depression) who underwent angiography had significant left main stenosis or a triple vessel disease [20].
In contrast the heart was markedly abnormal, with multifocal cardiac cell necrosis and subendocardial septal hemorrhage consistent with myocarditis.
Results showed that in group NC (Figure 1(a)), the thickening of the aortic wall was not obvious and the membrane of endothelial cells was long and thin with clear layers; in group DM1 (Figure 1(b)), the vascular intima was rough and the endothelial cells were normally arranged; in group DM2 (Figure 1(c)), the vascular intima was thickened and proceeded into the lumen, the endothelial cells were arranged in disorder, the subendocardial elastic tissue was ruptured, and multiple foam cells and calcification appeared; and in group DM3 (Figure 1(d)), the vascular intima was smooth, thin, and complete and the cells were arranged neatly.
The areas of view were chosen for the maximal coverage of subepicardial, intramural, and subendocardial layers of rat myocardium, thus aggregating three fields of observation for one segment.
Arterial stiffness, as an indicator of atherosclerosis, generates a stimulus for left ventricular hypertrophy and triggers subendocardial ischemia by reducing coronary artery perfusion [14].
Gkaliagkousi et al., "Subendocardial viability ratio in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: comparison with healthy controls and identification of prognostic factors," Clinical Rheumatology, vol.
E-NTPDase 2 is associated with the adventitia of muscularized vessels, microvascular pericytes, and other cell populations in the subendocardial space in the heart [75].
However, chronic hypoperfusion causes subendocardial ischemia and later fibrosis, increasing the risk of sudden death secondary to ventricular arrhythmias.
However, it is not sufficient to supply the left ventricle, especially in the subendocardial region, which can attribute to chronic left ventricular subendocardial ischemia.
(6) In other cases, medicine has moved away from a taxonomy grounded in tangible biological differences in favour of delineating diseases with reference to results of standard investigations--eg, the rejection of the old 'transmural'/'subendocardial' classification of myocardial infarction (MI) for ST-elevation and non-ST-elevation MI, or the greater preference for the single diagnosis 'chronic obstructive pulmonary disease' over 'chronic bronchitis' and 'emphysema.'
(32) reported that increased levels of deep and subendocardial fibrosis are observed in SUDEP cases compared with controls; this may reffect the result of repetitive sympathetic activation or recurrent hypoxemia from seizures.
However, the endomyocardial biopsies are frequently fals negative, as ARVC is initiated in subepicardial areas and has a slow progression towards endocardium, so the subendocardial areas used to collect tissular fragment may not be yet involved.