Analysis of the stone showed a struvite stone
with ammonium magnesium phosphate crystals, with degraded epithelial cells and leukocytes.
Interestingly, the presence of urease producing bacteria alone does not always result in struvite stone
Tiny quantities of COM were also missed by MA in 2 uric acid-containing stones (#26 and #128) and in a mixed carboapatite and struvite stone
Another 15% are the struvite stone
that form only in the presence of the urease-producing bacteria such as Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella, Serratia and Mycoplasma in the upper urinary tract like the calyces or proximal ureter.
formation by Corynebacterium group F1: a case report.
From the original numbers on initial sampling, 7 patients of the 43 CaOx, 5 of the 38 CaP, 3 of the 21 UA, none of the 6 cystine, all of the 4 mixed CaOx-CaP, all of the 2 mixed CaOx-UA and all of the 4 struvite stone
types were different.
Compound uroliths develop when a stone's environment changes, such as when a struvite stone
is treated by reducing urinary pH, magnesium, and phosphorus, resulting in a calcium oxalate shell around the struvite core.
Urosepsis was more in supra costal group because it is indicated in large number of staghorn calculi and large renal pelvic calculi which is struvite stone
harbouring more bacterial load, this can be minimized by using preoperative culture sensitivity based antibiotics.
Intermittent catheterization (IC) is recognized as the gold standard for treating voiding disorders associated with the neurogenic bladder.[sup.1,2] Self IC is the preferred method of bladder emptying because it minimizes the risk of infection and decreases the risk of calcium phosphate and struvite stone
formation.[sup.2] Intermittent catheterization involves the use of a short (15 to 40 cm) flexible catheter which is inserted up the urethra into the bladder to drain urine.
result from urinary tract infection.
Calcium phosphate and struvite stones
can be prevented with acidification of urine achieved with cranberry juice or betaine.11 Plenty of fluids, exercise, and control of obesity, moderate intake of animal proteins, and mixed fruit and vegetables are also recommended.
This works best with struvite stones
(magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate).