magnesium ammonium phosphate stone

(redirected from Struvite stone)

magnesium ammonium phosphate stone

A type of kidney stone, which is more common in women, linked to urinary tract infections (e.g., by Proteus spp) that produce specific enzymes. MAPSs can become very large, fill the renal pelvis, develop a staghorn appearance, obstruct the urinary tract and cause kidney damage.
 
Specimen
Stones obtained surgically or after being “passed” in the urine.

Method
Light microscopy, optical crystallography, IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction.
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.

magnesium ammonium phosphate stone

Struvite stone A type of stone more common in ♀, linked to UTIs–eg, by Proteus spp, which produce specific enzymes; MAPSs can become very large, fill the renal pelvis, develop a staghorn appearance, obstruct the urinary tract and cause kidney damage
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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Analysis of the stone showed a struvite stone with ammonium magnesium phosphate crystals, with degraded epithelial cells and leukocytes.
Interestingly, the presence of urease producing bacteria alone does not always result in struvite stone formation.
Tiny quantities of COM were also missed by MA in 2 uric acid-containing stones (#26 and #128) and in a mixed carboapatite and struvite stone (#130).
Another 15% are the struvite stone that form only in the presence of the urease-producing bacteria such as Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella, Serratia and Mycoplasma in the upper urinary tract like the calyces or proximal ureter.
Struvite stone formation by Corynebacterium group F1: a case report.
From the original numbers on initial sampling, 7 patients of the 43 CaOx, 5 of the 38 CaP, 3 of the 21 UA, none of the 6 cystine, all of the 4 mixed CaOx-CaP, all of the 2 mixed CaOx-UA and all of the 4 struvite stone types were different.
Compound uroliths develop when a stone's environment changes, such as when a struvite stone is treated by reducing urinary pH, magnesium, and phosphorus, resulting in a calcium oxalate shell around the struvite core.
Urosepsis was more in supra costal group because it is indicated in large number of staghorn calculi and large renal pelvic calculi which is struvite stone harbouring more bacterial load, this can be minimized by using preoperative culture sensitivity based antibiotics.
Intermittent catheterization (IC) is recognized as the gold standard for treating voiding disorders associated with the neurogenic bladder.[sup.1,2] Self IC is the preferred method of bladder emptying because it minimizes the risk of infection and decreases the risk of calcium phosphate and struvite stone formation.[sup.2] Intermittent catheterization involves the use of a short (15 to 40 cm) flexible catheter which is inserted up the urethra into the bladder to drain urine.
Struvite stones result from urinary tract infection.
Calcium phosphate and struvite stones can be prevented with acidification of urine achieved with cranberry juice or betaine.11 Plenty of fluids, exercise, and control of obesity, moderate intake of animal proteins, and mixed fruit and vegetables are also recommended.
This works best with struvite stones (magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate).