atom

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Related to Structure of the atom: Isotopes

atom

 [at´om]
the smallest particle of an element that has all the properties of the element. adj., adj atom´ic.ƒThere are two main parts of an atom: the nucleus and the electron cloud. The nucleus is made up of protons, which carry a positive electrical charge, and (except in hydrogen) neutrons, which contain one proton and one electron and carry no electrical charge. The electron cloud is made up of particles called electrons, which carry a negative electrical charge and move in orbits or “shells” around the nucleus. Different atoms have different numbers of protons, neutrons, and electrons in their makeup.

In a chemical change, atoms do not break up but act as individual units. The chemical behavior of an atom is controlled by the number and spatial arrangement of electrons in orbit around the nucleus. The atoms of radioactive elements are very unstable and are capable of emitting nuclear particles in a stream or “ray;” these particles are called radiations.

The atomic number of an element is the number of free protons (those not in neutrons) in the nucleus; it is equal to the net positive charge of the nucleus. The atomic weight is the weight of an atom of a substance as compared with the weight of an atom of carbon-12, which is taken as 12.

at·om

(at'ŏm),
Formerly considered the ultimate particle of an element, believed to be as indivisible as its name indicates. Discovery of radioactivity demonstrated the existence of subatomic particles, notably protons, neutrons, and electrons, the first two making up most of the mass of the atomic nucleus. It is now known that subatomic particles are further classified into hadrons, leptons, and quarks.
[G. atomos, indivisible, uncut]

atom

/at·om/ (at´om) the smallest particle of an element with all the properties of the element; it consists of a positively charged nucleus (made up of protons and neutrons) and negatively charged electrons, which move in orbits about the nucleus.atom´ic

atom

[at′əm]
Etymology: Gk, atmos, indivisible
1 (in chemistry and physics) the smallest division of an element that exhibits all the properties and characteristics of the element. It comprises neutrons, electrons, and protons. The number of protons in the nucleus of every atom of any given element is the same and is called its atomic number.
2
Usage notes: nontechnical,
the amount of any substance that is so small that further division is not possible. atomic, adj.

at·om

(at'ŏm)
Formerly considered the ultimate particle of an element, believed to be as indivisible as its name indicates. Discovery of radioactivity demonstrated the existence of subatomic particles, notably protons, neutrons, and electrons, the first two comprising most of the mass of the atomic nucleus. We now know that subatomic particles are further divisible into hadrons, leptons, and quarks.
[G. atomos, indivisible, uncut]

atom

the smallest particle of matter possessing the properties of an element.

atom,

n the smallest component of an element that retains the element's chemical properties. Atoms comprise molecules and are themselves divisible into electrons, neutrons, and protons.

at·om

(at'ŏm)
Formerly considered the ultimate particle of an element, discovery of radioactivity demonstrated the existence of subatomic particles, notably protons, neutrons, and electrons, the first two making up most of the mass of the atomic nucleus. Subatomic particles are now further classified into hadrons, leptons, and quarks.
[G. atomos, indivisible, uncut]

atom (at´əm),

n the smallest part of an element capable of entering into a chemical reaction.

atom

the smallest particle of an element that has all the properties of the element.
There are two main parts of an atom: the nucleus and the electron cloud. The nucleus is made up of protons, which carry a positive electrical charge, and (except in hydrogen) neutrons, which contain one proton and one electron and carry no electrical charge. The electron cloud is made up of particles called electrons, which carry a negative electrical charge and move in orbits or 'shells' around the nucleus. Different atoms have different numbers of protons, neutrons and electrons in their makeup.
The atomic number of an element is the number of free protons (those not in neutrons) in the nucleus; it is equal to the net positive charge of the nucleus.
The atomic weight is the weight of an atom of a substance as compared with the weight of an atom of carbon-12, which is taken as 12.
References in periodicals archive ?
Wherever he went he received civic receptions, and halls were packed to overflowing to hear him give illustrated talks on the structure of the atom.
In 1925-26, the future Nobel prize-winner Max Born presented two series of lectures at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology: one on the structure of the atom, the other on the lattice theory of rigid bodies.
But until the details of the internal structure of the atom were discovered, and the nature of the changes that gave rise to radioactivity were worked out, scientists could only refer to this new energy source as atomic energy.
Physicists were faced with a dilemma over the structure of the atom.
Fourier transformation of the FID signal results in an NMR spectrum, whereby, the measured frequency and amplitude provide detailed structure of the atoms and molecules in the analyzed specimen.
We will experiment with bosons, fermions and mixtures, and take advantage of the rich internal structure of the atoms.
They shoot finely-tuned beams of X-rays from a synchrotron machine - much stronger than a dental X-ray - at these materials and analyse the pattern of scattered X-rays coming out to determine the structure of the atoms inside.

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