To date, the company has identified three contributing factors - the presence of a stress riser
, differential soil settlement, and excessive stress at the bottom of the pipe.
Additional details using FIB showed that Pd did not form an alloy Pd/Pb with the lead, and secondly, the alloy Pd/Sn that was formed remained segregated in clusters on top of the Ni/Sn alloy, creating a stress riser
In some cases, the marking process left too great an impact on the fabricated steel and challenged the highly critical fine line between an accurate impression and one that created a stress riser
Inserting a screw into a long bone introduces a stress riser
that can predispose the bone to fracture.
Regulations, however, do not refer to the condition as mechanical damage, but rather refer to dents with any indication of metal loss, cracking or a stress riser
Though the stress riser
in the material tends to be reduced, any subsequent scarring of the surface in application can greatly reduce any benefits of the plishing operation.
State-of-the-art for characterization of the stress riser
are high-resolution inline inspection tools based on the magnetic flux leakage principle (MFL), circumferential MFL (CMFL) tools or the recently de\eloped EMAT crack detection tool (ECD) based on electromagnetic coupled ultrasound.
This is significant because these implants may reduce stress risers
and subsidence-related complications and potentially stimulate a cellular response through a mechanical transduction of strain.
at weld misalignment locations are also likely locations for crack initiation.
4) In addition, refractures can result from hardware removal, especially if stress risers
result from screw removals.
Those techniques also "cold work" the pipe ends which produces longitudinal stress risers
in the "bell" as a result of the swedging operation.
The ISSFA's solid surface fabrication program includes training on product knowledge, shop safety, basic productivity concepts, material handling, templating, high-strength seams, adhesive systems, stress risers
, thermoforming, inlays, backsplash fabrication, installation and inspection.