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a genus of gram-positive, facultatively aerobic cocci (family Streptococcaceae) occurring in pairs or chains. It is separable into the pyogenic group, the viridans group, the enterococcus group, and the lactic group. The first group includes the beta-hemolytic human and animal pathogens; the second and third include alpha-hemolytic parasitic forms occurring as normal flora in the upper respiratory tract and the intestinal tract, respectively; and the fourth is made up of saprophytic forms.
Streptococcus mu´tans a species implicated in dental caries.
Streptococcus pneumo´niae a small, slightly elongated, encapsulated coccus, one end of which is pointed or lance-shaped; the organisms commonly occur in pairs. This is the most common cause of lobar pneumonia, and it also causes serious forms of meningitis, septicemia, empyema, and peritonitis. There are some 80 serotypes distinguished by the polysaccharide hapten of the capsular substance. Called also pneumococcus.
a species of gram-positive, lancet-shaped cocci and diplococci frequently occurring in chains; cells are readily lysed by bile salts. Virulent forms are enclosed in type-specific polysaccharide capsules, the basis for an effective vaccine. Normal inhabitants of the respiratory tract, and the most common cause of lobar pneumonia, they are the most common causative agents of meningitis, and pneumonia worldwide, and also cause otitis media, sinusitis, and other infections. It is the type species of the former genus Diplococcus.
Etymology: Gk, streptos, curved, kokkos, berry, pneumon, lung
any of 70 antigenic types of pneumococcal bacteria that cause pneumonia and other diseases in humans. Bacteria are most commonly community acquired, but there are immunizations for 23 strains.
Streptococcus pneumoniaeMicrobiology A pathogenic streptococcus with 90 serotypes associated with pneumonia, bacteremia, meningitis Transmission Person to person Incidence Before 2000, S pneumoniae infections caused 100K-135K hospitalizations for pneumonia, 6 million cases of otitis media, and 60K cases of invasive disease–including 3300 cases of meningitis; sterile-site infections have a geographic variation of 21-33/105 Risk groups Elderly, children < age 2, African Americans, Native Americans, day care center inmates, and persons with underlying medical conditions including HIV infection and sickle-cell disease Prophylaxis 88% of clinical isolates of S pneumoniae are serotypes in the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine. See Meningitis.
Strep·to·coc·cus pneu·mo·ni·ae(strep'tō-kok'ŭs nū-mō'nē-ē)
A bacterial species of gram-positive, lancet-shaped diplococci frequently occurring in pairs or chains. Virulent forms are enclosed in type-specific polysaccharide capsules. Normal inhabitants of the respiratory tract, and the cause of lobar pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis, sinusitis, and other infections.
Strep·to·coc·cus pneu·mo·ni·ae(strep'tō-kok'ŭs nū-mō'nē-ē)
A bacterial species of gram-positive, lancet-shaped diplococci frequently occurring in pairs or chains. Normal inhabitants of the respiratory tract, and the cause of lobar pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis, sinusitis, and other infections.
a genus of gram-positive, predominantly facultatively anaerobic cocci in the family Streptococcaceae occurring in pairs or chains. It is classifiable in several ways, none of them completely satisfactory in terms of species designation. Sherman's classification was based on tolerance tests. The system used most widely in veterinary bacteriology is Lancefield's grouping based on serological tests.
Another means of differentiating streptococci is on the basis of type of hemolysis produced around colonies grown on sheep blood agar. Alpha (α) is partial hemolysis or greening of the agar. Beta (β) hemolysis is seen as a clear zone and gamma (γ) is no hemolysis. Most of the pathogenic species are β hemolytic.
causes mastitis in cattle, goats and sheep, neonatal septicemia and urogenital infections in dogs and cats.
Streptococcus avium, Streptococcus durans, Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus faecium and Streptococcus gallinarum
reclassified in the genus enterococcus. Now called Enterococcus avium etc.
an important organism in the development of lactic acidosis in cattle following carbohydrate engorgement because of its capacity to ferment starch to lactic acid.
Streptococcus canis (canus)
isolated from cases of septicemia and adenitis in puppies and kittens.
causes mastitis in cows, ewes and goat does and polyarthritis in lambs.
Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis
causes suppurative arthritis in piglets and abscesses in lymph nodes of the head and neck of horses. Also a cause of cervicitis in mares. Previously called S. equisimilis.
Streptococcus equi subsp. equi
causes strangles in horses.
Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus
occurs as a secondary infection in most species, particularly in horses in wounds, as a cause of cervicitis and a secondary infection associated with the viral infections of the upper respiratory tract. A cause of metritis and mastitis in cattle and septicemia in lambs, pigs and poultry. Previously called S. zooepidemicus.
causes opportunist infections in many species.
Streptococcus parauberis, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus viridans
may cause mastitis in cows.
formerly called Diplococcus pneumoniae; pneumococcus, causes pneumonia in humans, nonhuman primates, guinea pigs and calves and mastitis in cattle, and septicemia and arthritis in cats.
causes cervical abscess of pigs.
a cause of lymphangitis in foals and an uncommon cause of bovine mastitis. An important pathogen of humans.
Streptococcus spp. biovar 1
causes disease in cultured finfish.
has at least 35 capsular types many of which can cause streptococcal meningitis and arthritis in pigs. There is geographic variance in the importance of individual serotypes but types 1,2,3,4,7,8 and 11 are common pathogens. Infection with type 2 is particularly common and is a zoonosis as is type 14. Immunity to disease can be engendered by vaccination but is serotype specific.
Patient discussion about Streptococcus pneumoniae
Q. What Is Streptococcal Pneumonia? I have heard that I might have streptococcal pneumonia. What exactly does that mean?
A. Streptococcal pneumonia is a disease caused by the streptoccus bacteria. It is one of the most common causes of pneumonia in healthy people. You can learn more about bacterial pneumonia here-More discussions about Streptococcus pneumoniae