To begin to see exotic states of matter
, Zwierlein says molecules will have to be cooled still a bit further, to all but freeze them in place.
"We may be able to create weird states of matter
that exhibit unusual properties."
Other new states of matter
where electrons in materials organize themselves in unique ways that enable new technologies, from magnetic resonance imaging to quantum computing.
As the name implies, phase-change materials change phases, or states of matter
, for example, from solid to liquid or back (see diagram, p.
He also says that low-yield tests producing energy densities and states of matter
comparable to those produced in nuclear explosions could have considerable indirect military value, and notes that LLNL has studied the possibility of building a High Engergy Density Facility (HEDF) that could fully contain yields of up to 300 tons in order to perform these kinds of tests.
These model systems are (i) proper ferroelectrics tuned to high-k dielectric response and improper ferroelectrics whose behaviour is determined by the unusual nature of the polar state; (ii) compounds in which the interplay of strain and defects leads to novel and reversibly tuneable states of matter
; (iii) heterostructures with functionalities originating from the interaction across interfaces.
Some examples of these processes include exciton-exciton interaction, quantum coherence, assisted energy and charge transport, photochemistry, and new states of matter
With these components in place, we are poised to make the next quantum leap in technology by building a conceptually new experimental platform in which fragile quantum states of matter
can be realized and studied microscopically: We will use a nanotube single-electron-transistor as a high-resolution, ultrasensitive scanning charge detector to non-invasively image an exotic quantum state within a second pristine nanotube.