SPS(redirected from Standby power system)
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sodium polystyrene sulfonate(soe-dee-um po-lee-stye-reen sul-fon-ate) ,
Pharmacologic: cationic exchange resins
Time/action profile (decrease in serum potassium)
|PO||2–12 hr||unknown||6–24 hr|
|Rectal||2–12 hr||unknown||4–6 hr|
Adverse Reactions/Side Effects
- intestinal necrosis (life-threatening)
- constipation (most frequent)
- fecal impaction (most frequent)
- gastric irritation
- ischemic colitis
Fluid and Electrolyte
- sodium retention
Drug-Drug interactionAdministration with calcium or magnesium-containing antacids may ↓ resin-exchanging ability and ↑ risk of systemic alkalosis.Hypokalemia may enhance digoxin toxicity.Use with sorbitol may ↑ risk of colonic necrosis (concomitant use not recommended).
Route/Dosage4 level tsp = 15 g (4.1 mEq sodium/g)
Availability (generic available)
- Monitor response of symptoms of hyperkalemia (fatigue, muscle weakness, paresthesia, confusion, dyspnea, peaked T waves, depressed ST segments, prolonged QT segments, widened QRS complexes, loss of P waves, and cardiac arrhythmias). Assess for development of hypokalemia (weakness, fatigue, arrhythmias, flat or inverted T waves, prominent U waves).
- Monitor intake and output ratios and daily weight. Assess for symptoms of fluid overload (dyspnea, rales/crackles, jugular venous distention, peripheral edema). Concurrent low-sodium diet may be ordered for patients with HF (see ).
- In patients receiving concurrent digoxin, assess for symptoms of digoxin toxicity (anorexia, nausea, vomiting, visual disturbances, arrhythmias).
- Assess abdomen and note character and frequency of stools. Discontinue sodium polystyrene sulfonate if patient becomes constipated. Concurrent sorbitol or laxatives may be ordered to prevent constipation or impaction. Some products contain sorbitol to prevent constipation. Patient should ideally have 1–2 watery stools each day during therapy. Monitor for intestinal necrosis if sorbitol is added.
- Lab Test Considerations: Monitor serum potassium daily during therapy. Notify health care professional when potassium ↓ to 4–5 mEq/L.
- Monitor renal function and electrolytes (especially sodium, calcium, bicarbonate, and magnesium) prior to and periodically throughout therapy.
Potential Nursing DiagnosesConstipation (Side Effects)
- Solution is stable for 24 hr when refrigerated.
- Consult health care professional regarding discontinuation of medications that may increase serum potassium (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements, salt substitutes).
- An osmotic laxative (sorbitol) is usually administered concurrently to prevent constipation.
- Oral: For oral administration, shake commercially available suspension well before use. When using powder, add prescribed amount to 3–4 mL water/g of powder. Shake well. Syrup may be ordered to improve palatability. Resin cookie or candy recipes are available; discuss with pharmacist or dietitian.
- Retention Enema: Precede retention enema with cleansing enema. Administer solution via rectal tube or 28-French Foley catheter with 30-mL balloon. Insert tube at least 20 cm and tape in place.
- For retention enema, add powder to 100 mL of prescribed solution (usually sorbitol or 20% dextrose in water). Shake well to dissolve powder thoroughly; should be of liquid consistency. Position patient on left side and elevate hips on pillow if solution begins to leak. Follow administration of medication with additional 50–100 mL of diluent to ensure administration of complete dose. Encourage patient to retain enema as long as possible, at least 30–60 min.
- After retention period, irrigate colon with 1–2 L of non–sodium-containing solution. Y-connector with tubing may be attached to Foley or rectal tube; cleansing solution is administered through 1 port of the Y and allowed to drain by gravity through the other port.
- Explain purpose and method of administration of medication to patient.
- Advise patient to avoid taking antacids or laxatives during therapy, unless approved by health care professional; may cause systemic alkalosis.
- Advise female patient to notify health care professional if pregnant or breast feeding.
- Inform patient of need for frequent lab tests to monitor effectiveness.
- Normalization of serum potassium levels.
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sodium(sod'e-um) [ soda + -ium (1)] Na
The normal sodium level in serum is 135 to 145 mmol/L. A decreased level of sodium in the serum is called hyponatremia, an increased level, hypernatremia. These conditions per se are not usually excesses or deficiencies of sodium but rather disturbances in the body's regulation of water, i.e., a change in measured sodium concentrations usually results from water retention or water depletion and not from too little or too much sodium in the body. Synonym: natrium See: hypernatremia; hyponatremia