Standard Gamble

A manoeuvre that allows incorporation of patient preferences into the medical decision-making process.
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Basicamente existem tres tecnicas mais utilizadas para a medida direta de preferencias: o standard gamble (SG) ou escolha pela chance, o time trade-off (TTO) ou escolha pelo tempo e a escala visual analogica (EVA).
Measuring Health State Preferences and Utilities: Rating Scale, Time TradeOff, and Standard Gamble Techniques.
SF-6D EQ-5D EVA TTO SG SF-6D (1) 1,00 0,66 ** 0,44 ** 0,22 ** 0,22 ** EQ-5D (2) 1,00 0,49 ** 0,19 ** 0,11 EVA (3) 1,00 0,22 ** 0,06 TTO (4) 1,00 0,34 ** SG (5) 1,00 ** p < 0,01; (1) SF-6D = The Short-Form 6 Dimensions; (2) EQ-5D = The Euroqol Index of Health-Related Quality of Life; (3) EVA = Escala Visual Analogica; (4) TTO = Time Trade-off; (5) SG = Standard Gamble.
The rating scale preceded the standard gamble to avoid the anchoring effect induced by the standard gamble (Llewellyn-Thomas et al.
The simple rank order of health states was used as a validity check for the rating scale and standard gamble ratings.
The standard gamble method is consistent with von Neumann-Morgenstern expected utility axioms.
The primary outcome measures for each scenario were utilities (quantified preferences for specific health states) measured by the Standard Gamble.
These were assessed by the standard gamble (SG) method, described in more detail below.
In a separate standard gamble, subjects rated invasive cervical cancer versus immediate death (SG Ca), so that all utilities could be converted to the standard scale, using the formula: (1 - SG Ca) (SG Dys) + SG Ca.
3) Most authors claim the theoretically purest approach is a standard gamble technique.
Although perhaps most accurate, the standard gamble is not a particularly useful method because respondents typically find it both difficult to understand and burdensome.
It is easier to administer than the standard gamble, but the results are confounded by implicit discounting of future life years.

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