To be representative of the literature, as well as more realistic permanent magnet linear electric machine operation, the forcing function is modeled by both a time-based square wave and a sine wave for comparison.
The three simulation cases are given with all parameters equal except the shape of the motoring force profiles, and it is seen that the square wave results in higher stroke length and compression ratio followed by sinusoidal wave.
A direct digital synthesizer (DDS) module AD9850 controlled by a MCU (microcontroller unit) as shown in Figure 6 is adopted to generate the accurate square wave exciting signal.
Assuming the DC input of the inverter is Vs and using Fourier expansion, the square wave AC output put can be represented in infinite serials of the form
Square wave with RC is introduced to the word line of SRAM and the changes of behavior in SRAM internal nodes is observed.
Figure 12 shows the SRAM transient analysis over 800 ps, with input of an ideal square wave voltage without any RC delay.
In a pulse-width-modulated (PWM) switch-mode power converter, the ac waveform is a square wave which is rich in harmonics of the fundamental.
Parasitic capacitance, especially interwinding capacitance of the magnetic components, causes ringing of the voltages and currents initiated by the square wave switching.
Because we are using square waves as a signal source, we need to be very careful about reflections.
* What is a square wave but a sine wave with a bunch of odd harmonics?
Electronically controllable functional (triangular and square wave
) generators are widely employed in many analog and digital communication subsystems (clock generation, pulse width modulation, TTL or CMOS logic, DC-DC, AC-DC converters, etc.) , .
The pulse waveforms that have been used to date include square wave
, exponential decaying, oscillatory, bipolar, and instant-charge-reversal (fig.