Tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes are pri- marily responsible for genetic alterations at molecular level and thus are responsible for progression of normal epithelial cells to dysplastic squamous cells
.11 Various proliferative and apoptotic pathways are involved in normal cell cycle and growth.12 When tumor suppressor genes get inactivated and oncogenes are activated these proliferative and apoptotic pathways are de-regulated which leads to tumor development.
All normal squamous cells
can secrete PTHrP but only certain squamous cell
tumors result in hypercalcemia .
Editor's Note: Squamous cells
occur in the outermost layers of the skin, as well as in the lining of the digestive tract and other areas.
carcinoma (SCC) is a malignant neo- plasm of epithelial cells exhibiting squamous differentiation as characterised by the formation of kera- tin and the presence of intercellular bridges.1 These squamous cells
form the lining epithelium of skin, oral cavity, oesophagus, rectum, vagina etc.
are the main part of the outermost layers of the skin, and SCC is one of the major forms of skin cancer.
It was composed of strands, cords and nests of squamous cells
. These cells showed pleomorphic hyperchromatic nuclei.
Contribution of cytopathology to the diagnosis of oral squamous cells
carcinoma begins in the squamous cells
, which are thin, flat cells that resemble fish scales under a microscope.
At that time, biopsy revealed only squamous cells
and the preliminary diagnosis was oesophageal carcinoma.
(1) Primary squamous cell
carcinoma (SCC) of the thyroid is a sporadic malignant disease because the thyroid lacks squamous cells
can be found in the thyroid from persistence of thyroglossal ducts or brachial pouch-derived structures or from squamous metaplasia in Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
Cytologic study of the sample revealed rare ductal cells, few atypical cells, and anucleated squamous cells
in a proteinaceous background.