(SPONV) and Zika virus are closely related flaviviruses that were first described in Africa in 1952 and 1947, respectively (1).
DENV and ZIKV are members of the genus Flavivirus within the Flaviviridae family, which also includes other species such as yellow fever virus (YFV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Spondweni virus
(SPOV), and West Nile virus (WNV) .
Zika virus is most closely related to the Spondweni virus
, (15) and next most closely related to DENV.
However, this claim was doubted by Simpson (1964), who reported that the virus responsible for these cases was actually Spondweni Virus
. (8) Simpson went on to claim that he had experienced the first human case of ZIKV, with symptoms of headache, rash, and fever and a coinciding rise in ZIKV antibodies after onset of illness.
ZIKV belongs to the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus, closely related to the Spondweni virus
It is most closely related to the Spondweni virus
and is one of the two viruses in the Spondweni virus
clade. The virus was first isolated in 1947 from a rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest of Uganda, Africa and was isolated for the first time from humans in 1968 in Nigeria. From 1951 through 1981, evidence of human infection was reported from other African countries such as Uganda, Tanzania, Egypt, Central African Republic, Sierra Leone and Gabon, as well as in parts of Asia including India, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam and Indonesia. It is transmitted by mosquitoes and has been isolated from a number of species in the genus Aedes - Aedes aegypti, Aedes africanus, Aedes apicoargenteus, Aedes furcifer, Aedes luteocephalus and Aedes vitattus.
The list of diseases and their references (many from PubMed) included in these charts is exhaustive and includes such illnesses and conditions as Spondweni virus
infection, coenurosis, philophthalmosis, and Wesselsbron disease.
Its closest relative is Spondweni virus
, the only other member of its clade (15,16).
Phylogenetic analyses rooted with Spondweni virus
showed that the Zika virus sequences (GenBank accession nos.
It is a single-stranded positive RNA virus (10,794-nt genome) that is closely related to the Spondweni virus
and is transmitted by many Aedes spp.
It is closely related to Spondweni virus
; the 2 viruses are the only members of their clade within the mosquito-borne cluster of flaviviruses (Figure 2) (1,21,22).
Louis encephalitis virus, YFV, Powassan virus, Semliki Forest virus, o'nyong-nyong virus, chikungunya virus, and Spondweni virus