slightly protruding from caudal end.
on larvae and male and female adults of L.
Synergus filicornis: immature larva: General aspect (a), tegumental differentiation (b, under SEM), spiracle
(c), and head (d) [antennal orbits (ao), maxillary (mp) and labial palpi (lp), sensillum (s)].
I smaller than spiracles
We think such incongruent results with character 7 could be circumvented by adopting a clear-cut proportion to define relative size of antenna, as was done by Kojima (1998) with character 35, relative size of first spiracle
. Based on Figure 6 and analysis of Kojima (1998), we would tentatively suggest that the value of 0.067 [ratio between of antennal orbit /head width; this limit value was set from analyzing 27 species illustrations from Dias Filho (1975) and 116 species from Kojima (1998)] be adopted as the borderline to separate relative antennal size, with the result that some genera (e.g.
At this stage, the rays displayed tonic immobility, absence of tail and fin movements, absence of reaction to external touch and frequency of spiracle
beats of less than 10 per minute.
T1 subquadrate behind spiracles
in workers and males (Fig.
The main key morphological characters for differentiation of the III larval stage in these three species of the subgenus Liopygia involve dorsal surface of the II thoracic segment, anterior spiracle
digits/papillae, posterior spiracles
, and the shape of the cephaloskeleton [3, 10].
Most puzzling were the unconcealed tympana of these species, combined with tiny auditory spiracles
and other characteristics, each typical of a different subfamily.
Closer inspection of these lesions may reveal the two dark spiracles
, or breathing holes, of the larvae, which are key to removing them, Dr.
They discovered that a gene in hornworm caterpillars allowed them to puff nicotine out through their spiracles
(tiny holes in their sides), from the tobacco that they ate, Fox News reported.
on A1 located ventrad and cephalad, whereas that of A2 is aligned with the remaining spiracles
and located at center of segment in lateral view.