spinal accessory nerve

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Related to spinal accessory nerve: transverse cervical artery, Dorsal scapular nerve

ac·ces·so·ry nerve [CN XI]

nerve that arises by two sets of roots: the presumed cranial, emerging from the side of the medulla, and the presumed spinal, emerging from the ventrolateral part of the first five cervical segments of the spinal cord; these roots unite to form the accessory nerve trunk, which divides into two branches, internal and external; the internal branch, carrying fibers of the cranial root, unites with the vagus in the jugular foramen and supplies the muscles of the pharynx, larynx, and soft palate; the external branch continues independently through the jugular foramen to supply the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles. Even though the accessory nerve was originally believed to have cranial and spinal roots, it is now the general view that the so-called cranial root is actually a portion of the vagus nerve.
Synonym(s): nervus accessorius [CN XI] [TA], accessorius willisii, eleventh cranial nerve [CN XI], spinal accessory nerve

spinal accessory nerve

spinal accessory nerve

A motor nerve originating in the nucleus ambiguus in the medulla and in a column of motor neurons in the ventral horn of the upper cervical spinal cord. After exiting the skull through the jugular foramen, the nerve splits; its cranial trunk joins the vagus (CN X) and innervates striated muscles in the soft palate, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus; its spinal trunk continues down the neck to innervate the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles.
Synonym: accessory nerve; eleventh cranial nerve See: spinal accessory nucleus
See also: nerve


pertaining to a spine or to the vertebral column and in many instances to the spinal cord.

spinal abscess
infection may be introduced hematologically from navel infection to a vertebral body or up the vertebral canal from an infected docking wound. Clinically there is a development of paresis over a few days then paraplegia when the abscess is in the lumbar region or quadriplegia when it is located in the cervical area.
spinal accessory nerve
see accessory nerve, Table 14.
congenital spinal stenosis
stenosis of the vertebral canal present at birth; recorded in calves.
spinal fibrocartilaginous emboli
see fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy.
focal symmetrical spinal poliomalacia
see focal symmetrical spinal poliomalacia.
spinal fusion
surgical creation of ankylosis of contiguous vertebrae.
spinal meninges
spinal meningitis
usually part of cerebrospinal meningitis. May be local related to spinal cord abscess and cause localized pain and muscle rigidity.
spinal muscular atrophy
see hereditary spinal muscular atrophy, hereditary neuronal abiotrophy of Swedish Lapland dogs.
spinal myelitis
spinal myelopathy
spinal nerve
any of the paired nerves arising from the spinal cord and passing out between the vertebrae.
spinal puncture
introduction of a hollow needle into the subarachnoid space of the spinal canal, usually for the purpose of collecting a sample of cerebrospinal fluid, to introduce radiopaque material for myelography, or the injection of an anesthetic.
spinal reflex
any reflex action mediated through a center at the spinal cord.
spinal stenosis
see spinal cord compression (above).
spinal tap
see spinal puncture (above).
spinal trauma
temporary or permanent dislocation of one or more spinal vertebrae; or fracture; causes immediate flaccid paralysis caudal to injury due to spinal shock, followed by residual signs due to damage to spinal cord tissue.
spinal walking
see reflex walking.
References in periodicals archive ?
Pathological changes in spinal accessory nerve tissue can be visualized by USG (27).
30), showed that conservative management is effective even in late diagnosed spinal accessory nerve injuries.
Spinal accessory nerve palsy as a cause of pain after whiplash injury: case report.
Lunardi p Mastronardi L, Farah JO, De Biase C, Trasimeni G, Gualdi GF Spinal accessory nerve palsy due to neurovascular compression.
Dissection and removal of the level II-B lymph nodes requires an extensive dissection and mobilization of the proximal portion of the spinal accessory nerve (SAN).
These modifications include techniques to preserve various functionally important anatomic structures, particularly the spinal accessory nerve, the jugular vein, the sternocleidomastoid muscle, and the cervical plexus of the sensory nerves.
The most disturbing sequela of traditional radical neck dissection is loss of shoulder function as a result of a resection of the spinal accessory nerve and denervation of the trapezius muscle.