Therefore, the present study was designed to elucidate the impact of both neuropeptides on (i) OMV-stimulated hBD-2 promoter activity in human A549 epithelial cells (type II alveolar cells) as constituents of the first line of defense, (ii) OMV-mediated A549 apoptotic response, and (iii) the azurophilic and specific granule release from neutrophils--the processes associated with the damage of surrounding tissues.
After incubation, cells were centrifuged (250 x g for 5 min) and cell-free supernatants were collected and stored at -20[degrees]C until being assayed for elastase and NGAL as markers of azurophilic and specific granule content, respectively.
Neutrophil degranulation was measured by quantitating the release of elastase, an enzyme present in azurophilic granules and NGAL as the specific granule marker.
Functionally, the granules can be subdivided into three different classes based on the contents of their matrices and their integral membrane proteins: azurophilic granule, specific granule, and gelatinase granule.
The specific granules are smaller with 0.1 [micro]m diameter and formed after azurophilic granules.
BV = Sub mucosal blood vessels, CT = connective tissue (both X5000 nm), NC = Nerve cell in the submucosal plexus (notice the electron dense neurotransmitter substances) (X5000 nm), EL = Eosinophil Leukocyte with specific electron dense granules in the cytoplasm (X2000 nm), NL = Neutrophilic Leukocyte with fine specific granules
and a centrally located nucleus (X2000 nm), BL = Basophilic Leukocyte with no nucleus observed, electron dense granules in the cytoplasm (X2000 nm), FB = Fibroblast (X10000), LY = Lymphocyte (X10000).
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. flakes and powders.
(17,91) Electron microscopic analysis of the neutrophilic inclusions shows them to lack a limiting membrane, be free of specific granules
, and contain parallel bundles of ribosomes, microfilaments, and segments of endoplasmic reticulum.
Only smaller fractions of earlier characterized neutrophil chemoattractant receptors such as the FPRs, belonging to the family of GPCRs, are localized in the plasma membrane, whereas most of these receptors are stored in the secretory organelles, that is, secretory vesicles and specific granules [18, 28, 29].
The two FPRs (FPR1 and FPR2) have earlier been shown to be localized to a minor part in the plasma membrane of resting cells, whereas the majority of the receptors are stored in mobilizable organelles, that is, the secretory vesicles the gelatinase granules, and the specific granules [18, 29].
Differences in enzyme content of azurophil and specific granules of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
The development of neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes in human bone marrow: origin and content of azurophil and specific granules. J.