Antonio Nunez, psychology professor and researcher in the study, said, "When we exposed the rats to dim light, mimicking the cloudy days of Midwestern winters or typical indoor lighting, the animals showed impairments in spatial learning
At the end of the four-week period, the first group of rats, who were kept in dim light and darkness, showed about 30 percent loss of capacity in their hippocampus - the region of the brain which is crucial for both short-term and long-term memory formation, as well as for spatial learning
and short-term (7 days after exposure) and long-term (30 days after exposure) memory were evaluated using Morris water maze test.
In the preK-12 curriculum in many schools, emphasis has been placed on learning styles, although there is little empirical evidence to support claims that this enhances student achievement, and little attention has been paid to spatial learning
, which has strong empirical support.
The spatial learning
performance of each group was assessed by using the Morris water maze (MWM).
The Morris Water Maze was adapted to test spatial learning
and memory ability of the rats.
For example, chronic supplementation with pyruvate facilitated the spatial learning
of middle-aged (6- to 12-months-old) mice, made them more interested in the odor of unfamiliar mice, and stimulated them to perform so-called "rearing," an exploratory behavior where mice stand on their hind legs and investigate their surroundings.
Further experiments in wild-type mice showed that experimental lowering of BRCA1 levels in the dentate gyrus caused neuronal dysfunction and shrinkage, as well as impairments in synaptic plasticity, excessive neuronal excitability, spatial learning
and memory deficits, and increased DNA damage.
Cognitive testing was undertaken during the 9th week and involved the MWM test, which is an age- and diet-sensitive accepted method of testing spatial learning
and memory in which a challenge is repeated twice over a period to ascertain working memory and retrieval.
This tests hippocampal-dependent spatial learning
and memory in rodents [22, 23].
In particular, they area great source of anthocyanins which have been linked to improving memory and spatial learning
In particular, they are a great source of anthocyanins which have been linked to improving memory and spatial learning