ART

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ART

 

ART

Accredited Record Technician; automated reagin test; assisted reproductive technology.

ART

abbr.
assisted reproductive technology

ART

abbreviation for active resistance training.

ART

Anturane Reinfarction Trial. A clinical trial comparing sulfinpyrazone to placebo in the first month post acute myocardial infarction; the sponsors trumpeted its alleged cardiovascular benefits—a 32% reduction in cardiac mortality rate, almost entirely due to a reduction in sudden death in the first 6 months, which occurred because the drug sponsor carved a subgroup out of the data set.
Per the FDA, "We are aware that it is unusual for an FDA critique of a clinical trial to be published in the medical literature. We believe that it is important in this instance, however, because … it illustrates so clearly the problems that may arise from subgroup analyses and exclusion of patients from analysis after they have completed a study … Our review … indicates that the cause-of-death classification and all conclusions based on it are unreliable, and that the favorable effect of sulfinpyrazone on overall mortality, especially during the first six months, depends heavily on the after-the-fact exclusion of certain deaths from the analysis”.

ART

1. Antiretroviral therapy, see there.
2. Assisted reproductive technology, see there.

ART

Abbreviation for acoustic reflex threshold.
References in periodicals archive ?
In other words, the Federal Circuit will be developing its contemporary prohibition on claims to abstract ideas in the software arts on the model of the Supreme Court's nineteenth century prohibition on claims to principles in the mechanical arts in cases like Wyeth and O'Reilly: in both situations, the courts uphold functional claims only if they are tied to the structural properties of a particular machine, whether literal or metaphorical.
286) In fact, short of a more radical move such as abandoning the peripheral claiming regime in the software arts (287) or categorically excluding software from patentable subject matter, (288) the invention-algorithm equation may represent the most promising route forward for incremental, judicial reform of software-patent scope.
If algorithms are to rectify the functionality malfunction in the software arts, the invention-algorithm equation must be applied to software claims in a consistent, uniform manner.
314) It may be that algorithms offer the best hope for fixing patent law's functionality malfunction in the software arts, but it may also be that the courts lack the institutional competence to do the needed work.
In the software arts, however, Benson means that the analogs of raw structural claims--namely raw algorithm claims--are basic tool claims that are not patentable subject matter.
Patent law's conventional scope-curtailing doctrines therefore have not been able to get the traction in the software arts that they get in most other arts, and purely functional, overbroad software claims have become the norm.
Courts can attempt to fix the functionality malfunction in the software arts by translating the invention-structure equation into an invention-algorithm equation.
However, this evidence is irrelevant to the issue of overbreadth if, as this Article argues, software patents are overbroad because the patent doctrine that invalidates overbroad patents in most arts is ineffective in the software arts.
To offer a proof of the principle, this Article only addresses the functionality malfunction in the software arts.
While this is true under limited conditions, see infra note 245, those conditions are not common in the software arts.
The dominance of enablement in general discussions about how to use patent law's validity doctrines to best tailor patent scope extends into discussions about how to tailor patent scope in the software arts in particular.
Thus, for the Federal Circuit to use enablement to curb the reach of functional claims in the software arts, it must identify the metaphorical structure of a software invention--the same task that it must undertake to bring the invention-structure equation to bear on software claims.

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