sodium

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sodium

 [so´de-um]
a chemical element, atomic number 11, atomic weight 22.990, symbol Na. (See Appendix 6.) Sodium is the major cation of the extracellular fluid, constituting 90 to 95 per cent of all cations in the blood plasma and interstitial fluid; it thus determines the osmolality of the extracellular fluid. The serum sodium concentration is normally about 140 mEq/L. If the sodium level and osmolality fall, osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus are stimulated and cause the release of antidiuretic hormone from the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. This hormone increases the absorption of water in the collecting ducts of the kidneys so that water is conserved while sodium and other electrolytes are excreted in the urine. If the sodium level and osmolality rise, neurons in the thirst center of the hypothalamus are stimulated. The thirsty person then drinks enough water to restore the osmolality of the extracellular fluid to the normal level.



A decrease in the serum sodium concentration (hyponatremia) can occur in a variety of conditions. It is often associated with deficient fluid volume due to diarrhea or vomiting when water is replaced faster than sodium. It can also occur in syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone, in the late stages of congestive heart failure or cirrhosis of the liver, in acute or chronic renal failure, and in diuretic therapy. An increase in the serum sodium concentration (hypernatremia) occurs when insensible water loss is not replaced by drinking, as in a comatose patient with diabetes insipidus.
sodium acetate a source of sodium ions for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, as well as a systemic and urinary alkalizer.
sodium ascorbate an antiscorbutic vitamin and nutritional supplement for parenteral administration. It is also used as an aid to deferoxamine therapy in the treatment of chronic iron toxicity.
sodium benzoate an antifungal agent also used in a test of liver function.
sodium bicarbonate NaHCO3, a white powder commonly found in households. It has a wide variety of uses in chemistry, in pharmaceuticals, and in consumer products. It is sometimes taken in water as a remedy for acid indigestion but should not be used regularly since when taken in excess it tends to cause alkalosis. It can be mixed with water and applied as a paste for relief of pain in treatment of minor burns and insect bites and stings. A cupful in the bath water may help relieve itching caused by an allergic reaction. Called also baking soda and bicarbonate of soda.
sodium biphosphate monobasic sodium phosphate.
sodium carbonate a compound now used primarily as an alkalizing agent in pharmaceuticals; it has been used as a lotion or bath in the treatment of scaly skin, and as a detergent.
sodium chloride common table salt, a necessary constituent of the body and therefore of the diet, involved in maintaining osmotic tension of blood and tissues; uses include replenishment of electrolytes in the body, irrigation of wounds and body cavities, enema, inhaled mucolytic, topical osmotic ophthalmic agent, and preparation of pharmaceuticals. Called also salt.
sodium citrate a sodium salt of citric acid, used as an anticoagulant for blood or plasma that is to be fractionated or for blood that is to be stored. It is also administered orally as a urinary alkalizer.
dibasic sodium phosphate a salt of phosphoric acid; used alone or in combination with other phosphate compounds, it is given intravenously as an electrolyte replenisher, orally or rectally as a laxative, and orally as a urinary acidifier and for prevention of kidney stones.
sodium ferric gluconate a hematinic used especially in treatment of hemodialysis patients with iron deficiency anemia who are also receiving erythropoietin therapy. Administered by intravenous injection.
sodium fluoride a dental caries preventative used in fluoridation of drinking water or applied topically to teeth. Topical preparations include gels (sodium fluoride and phosphoric acid gel, also called APF gel) and solutions (sodium fluoride and acidulated phosphate topical solution, also called APF solution).
sodium glutamate monosodium glutamate.
sodium hydroxide NaOH, a strongly alkaline and caustic compound; used as an alkalizing agent in pharmaceuticals.
sodium hypochlorite a compound having germicidal, deodorizing, and bleaching properties; used in solution to disinfect utensils, and in diluted form (Dakin's solution) as a local antibacterial.
sodium iodide a compound used as a source of iodine.
sodium lactate a compound used in solution to replenish body fluids and electrolytes.
monobasic sodium phosphate
1. a monosodium salt of phosphoric acid; used in buffer solutions, as a urinary acidifier, as a laxative, and as a source of phosphorus in hypophosphatemia, often in combination with potassium phosphate.
2. a monosodium salt of phosphoric acid; used in buffer solutions. Used alone or in combination with other phosphate compounds, it is given intravenously as an electrolyte replenisher, orally or rectally as a laxative, and orally as a urinary acidifier and for prevention of kidney stones.
sodium monofluorophosphate a dental caries preventative applied topically to the teeth.
sodium nitrite an antidote for cyanide poisoning; also used as a preservative in cured meats and other foods.
sodium nitroprusside an antihypertensive agent used in the treatment of acute congestive heart failure and of hypertensive crisis and to produce controlled hypotension during surgery; also used as a reagent.
sodium phenylbutyrate an agent used as adjunctive treatment to control the hyperammonemia of pediatric urea cycle enzyme disorders.
sodium phosphate any of various compounds of sodium and phosphoric acid; usually specifically dibasic sodium phosphate.
sodium polystyrene sulfonate an ion-exchange resin used for removal of potassium ions in hyperkalemia, administered orally or rectally.
sodium propionate a salt used as an antifungal preservative in foods and pharmaceuticals and as a topical antifungal agent.
sodium salicylate see salicylate.
sodium sulfate a cathartic and laxative.
sodium thiosulfate a compound used intravenously as an antidote for cyanide poisoning, in foot baths for prophylaxis of ringworm, and as a topical antifungal agent for tinea versicolor. Also used in measuring the volume of extracellular body fluid and the renal glomerular filtration rate.

so·di·um (Na),

(sō'dē-ŭm),
A metallic element, atomic no. 11, atomic wt. 22.989768; an alkali metal oxidizing readily in air or water; its salts are found in natural biologic systems and are extensively used in medicine and industry. The sodium ion is the most plentiful extracellular ion in the body. For organic sodium salts not listed here, see under the name of the organic acid portion.
Synonym(s): natrium
[Mod. L. fr. soda]

sodium  

Na+ An alkaline metallic element–atomic number, 11; atomic weight 22.99, which is the main extracellular cation; it is a critical electrolyte in body fluid homeostasis, neuromuscular conduction, and enzyme activity Ref range 135-145 mmol/L–US: 135-145 mEq/L; urine: 40-220 mEq/24 h Panic–critical values Serum < 120 mmol/L; > 160 mmol/L–US: 135-145 mEq/L; urine 43–260 mmol/24 hr
Sodium
Serum sodium
↓ Burns, drugs–ethacrynic acid, thiazides, mannitol, salt-wasting diuretics–eg, furosemide, prolonged IV therapy, low-sodium diet, nasogastic suctioning, salt-wasting renal disease, tissue injury, SIADH, vomiting
↑ Adrenal hyperfunction, CHF, dehydration, hepatic failure, high-sodium diet, drugs–some antibiotics, corticosteroids, cough medicines, laxatives
Urine sodium
↓ Adrenal hyperfunction, CHF, hepatic failure, low-sodium diet, renal failure
↑ Adrenal hypofunction, anterior pituitary–adenohypophysis hypofunction, essential HTN, high-sodium diet

Patient discussion about sodium

Q. What are the Brands of Sodium-phenobarbitone drug in Bangladesh?

A. maybe this link will help-
http://www.medindia.net/doctors/drug_information/phenobarbitone.htm

if not- i recommend asking an Indian pharmacist..

Q. What steps do you take when your physician says your sodium is low

A. Drugs That May Be Prescribed By Your Doctor for Hyponatremia(low sodium):

Sodium levels must be corrected carefully. If your blood test results indicate you have a very low sodium level, your healthcare provider will cautiously correct the levels, to a "safe level."

Intravenous (IV) fluids with a high-concentration of sodium, and/or diuretics to raise your blood sodium levels.

Loop Diuretics - also known as "water pills" as they work to raise blood sodium levels, by making you urinate out extra fluid. The fluid that is lost (called "free water") is usually replaced with an IV solution that contains a high level of sodium.

A common example of this type of medication is Furosemide (e.g Lasix). You may receive this medication alone or in combination with other medications.

More discussions about sodium
References in periodicals archive ?
According to the previous literature, the shorter edge length of 3D channel of open-framework CGSe is about 6.4 [Armstrong], which is several times larger than that of ionic radius of sodium ions (1.02 [Armstrong]) [4, 24].
After determining the impacts of potassium ion channels on temporal coherence of network in the presence of autapse, we examine the effects of sodium ion channels known as another important ion channels at determining the firing dynamics of neuron.
The amount of sodium falling on the catchment area together with the atmospheric precipitations was determined with respect to each month as the amount of precipitations multiplied by the sodium ion concentration:
For the present study, we estimated effects of seven major chemical constituents of P[M.sub.2.5] on mortality: OCM, EC, silicon, sodium ion, nitrate, ammonium, and sulfate.
Jayaraman, "Sodium ion transport in the intestinal wall: a mathematical model, "IMA Journal of Mathematical Medicine and Biology, vol.11, no.
For each soil sample obtained, electrical conductivity (EC), sodium ions (Na), bicarbonate (HCO3-) and the percentage of gypsum, calcium carbonate and clay were measured.
Chloride and sodium ions, the two major components of salt, are needed by all known living creatures in small quantities.
"Seeing now that NCX1, in some instances, moves an extra calcium or an extra sodium ion lets us predict much better how this system works in the heart and how it affects the function of the heart," Dr.
They include a variety of potassium channels, CLC chloride channels, sodium ion channels, aquaporins facilitating the membrane transport of water, and bacteria mechano-sensitive channels serving as passages for various osmolytes including ions.
In addition to its cancer program, the company has a chronic pain program that targets a sodium ion channel called Nav1.9, selectively expressed in the peripheral nervous system.
Therefore within areas of similar mineralogy, ESP can be predicted by the use of linear regression using clay percentage and sodium ion concentration provided CCR is above 0.55.
These results confirm those reported by Robertson (1984), who studied the content of sodium and potassium in Anguilla anguilla muscle and found that sodium ion increased in the animals adapted to freshwater, even though the potassium ion diminished.