Smile Effect

A popular term for an upward curve due to slower migration of DNA in the outer lanes of agarose gels, due to uneven positioning of the gel during electrophoresis or uneven heat distribution in the gel
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Examples of specific topics include managing derivatives in the presence of a smile effect and incomplete information, the relationship between corruption and economic growth, financial risk management by derivatives caused from weather conditions, evidence from crude oil futures options concerning the behavior of implied volatility surface, procyclical behavior of loan loss provisions and banking strategies, market power and banking competition on the credit market, portfolio diversification and market share analysis for Romanian insurance companies, threshold mean reversion in stock prices, corporate governance and managerial risk taking in the Tunisian context, option market microstructure, and nonlinearity and genetic algorithms in the decision making process.
Recently, Bellalah and Mahfoudh (2004) used a model with stochastic volatility and jumps in the presence of incomplete information to explain the smile effect.
Importantly, in the current study, the smile effects on the eye expression occurred in the absence of fixations on the mouth while the eyes were under visual inspection.