SMAD2

SMAD2

A gene on chromosome 18q21.1 that encodes a SMAD family protein, named for their similarity to the Drosophila gene Mothers Against Decapentaplegic (MAD), which are signal transducers and transcription modulators of multiple signalling pathways. SMAD2 mediates the signal of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, and thus regulates multiple cellular processes—e.g., cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. In response to the binding of TGF-beta, SMAD2 is phosphorylated and dissociated from the SMAD anchor for receptor activation (SARA) protein and forms a complex with SMAD4, resulting in transcription regulation.
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To make sure that our myostatin was triggering intracellular signaling, we evaluated the phosphorylation levels of Smad2 and 3 after 4 h of incubation with myostatin.
To further investigate MHP1-mediated intracellular transduction mechanisms, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells were treated with MHP-1 under TGF-[beta]1 stimulation and phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 were detected.
Increased TRAF4, correlate with elevated levels of phosphorylated SMAD2 and phosphorylated TAK1 as well as poor prognosis among breast cancer patients.
Mutations in other tumour suppressor genes (APC, SMAD2, SMAD 4, DCC, TP53) and oncogenes (K-ras) and several other genes/pathways accompany the transition of the tumour towards malignancy and metastasis.
MAN1, an integral protein of the inner nuclear membrane, binds Smad2 and Smad3 and antagonizes transforming growth factor-beta signaling.
Expression of Smad2 and Smad4 transforming growth factor-beta signal transducers in rat endometrium during the estrous cycle pre- and peri-implantation.
Alternatively, IL-6 activates IL-1ra, which allows TGF-[beta] to phosphorylate and induce the expression of activating signaling protein genes Smad2 and Smad3, resulting in the full expression of multiple genes.
Alteraciones en el gen SMAD4 (DPC4) se presentan entre 16% y 25% de los casos de CCR, mientras que un 6% ocurre en SMAD2, cuando estas alteraciones ocurren en la linea germinal de los individuos generan poliposis juvenil y hamartomas poliposos (46).
The signals induced by TGF-[beta] are specifically mediated by SMAD2 and SMAD3.
Both SMAD2 and SMAD3 mediate activin-stimulated expression of the follicle-stimulating hormone [beta] subunit in mouse gonadotrope cells," Molecular Endocrinology 18(3): 606-623.
The two genes, named Smad2 and TSC-22, play important roles during the hair's life cycle which includes growth, regression, dormancy, the falling out of the hair and the growth of new hair, according to the study.