ammonium

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ammonium

 [ah-mo´ne-um]
a hypothetical radical, NH4, forming salts analogous to those of the alkaline metals.
ammonium carbonate a mixture of ammonium compounds used as a liquefying expectorant in the treatment of chronic bronchitis and similar lung disorders. It is sometimes used as a reflex stimulant in “smelling salts” because of the strong ammonia odor it gives off.
ammonium chloride colorless or white crystals, with a cool, salty taste, used as an expectorant because it liquefies bronchial secretions. In the body it is changed to urea and hydrochloric acid, and thus is useful in acidifying the urine and increasing the rate of urine flow. Excessive dosage may produce acidosis.
ammonium lactate lactic acid neutralized with ammonium hydroxide, applied topically in the treatment of ichthyosis vulgaris and xerosis.

am·mo·ni·um

(ă-mō'nē-yŭm),
An ion, NH4+, formed by combining NH3 and H+ (the pKa value is 9.24); acts as a univalent metal in forming ammonium compounds.

ammonium

/am·mo·ni·um/ (ah-mo´ne-um) the hypothetical radical, NH4, forming salts analogous to those of the alkaline metals.
ammonium carbonate  a mixture of ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) and ammonium carbamate (NH2CO2NH4), used as a stimulant, as in smelling salts, and as an expectorant.
ammonium chloride  a systemic and urinary acidifying agent and diuretic, also used orally as an expectorant.
ammonium lactate  lactic acid neutralized with ammonium hydroxide, applied topically in the treatment of ichthyosis vulgaris and xerosis.

ammonium (NH4+)

an ion formed by the reaction of ammonia (NH3) with a hydrogen ion (H+). The ammonium ion is highly soluble in water but does not pass easily through cell membranes, as does the ammonia molecule, and its rate of excretion is influenced in part by the acidity of urine. The lower the pH, the greater the proportion of ammonium ions present, assuming a constant level of ammonia production from amino acid metabolism.

storage lesion

Transfusion medicine The constellation of changes occurring in a unit of packed red cells during storage. See Red cell preservatives.
Storage lesions
Ammonium to 470 µmol/L–US: 800 µg/dL
Free Hb in plasma from 82 to 6580 mg/L–US: 8.2 to 658 mg/dL
K+ from 4.2 to 78.5 mmol/L–US: 4.2 to 78.5 mEq/L
ATP from 100% to 45%
2,3 DPG to < 10% of original levels–replenished within 24 hours of transfusion
Labile proteins, eg complement, fibronectin and coagulation factors ↓ to negligible
Na+ from 169 to 111 mmol/L–US: 169 to 111 mEq/L
pH from 7.6 to 6.7
Adverse physiologic effects of stored blood is negligible in the absence of a previous compromise of the Pt's–recipient's status

am·mo·ni·um

(ă-mō'nē-ŭm)
The ion, NH4+, formed by combination of NH3 and H+; behaves as a univalent metal in forming compounds.

ammonium

a hypothetical radical, NH4, forming salts analogous to those of the alkaline metals. See also ammonia.

ammonium acetate
a weak diuretic and feed supplement.
ammonium bifluoride
wood preservative; causes diarrhea and fall in milk yield in cattle.
ammonium carbonate, ammonium chloride
saline expectorants used for the purpose of liquefying pulmonary secretions. Effectiveness has not been proven. They are sometimes used as a reflex stimulant because of the strong ammonia given off. The chloride salt is used mainly as a urinary acidifier. Excessive dosage may produce acidosis.
ammonium magnesium phosphate
see magnesium ammonium phosphate.
ammonium metavanadate
experimentally causes vanadium poisoning.
ammonium nitrate
causes nitrate poisoning.
ammonium oxalate
causes oxalate poisoning.
ammonium phosphate
a feed additive for cattle. The monobasic salt provides 27% phosphorus and 13% nitrogen, while the dibasic salt provides 23% phosphorus and 21% nitrogen.
ammonium sulfamate
used as a herbicide; cattle and deer eating treated plants may be poisoned.
ammonium sulfate
causes ammonia poisoning.
References in periodicals archive ?
Temple of the Oracle in Siwa Oasis and (inset) the town of Shali
Located at the western border of Egypt, it extends for over 700km, from the Siwa Oasis in the north to The Gilf Kebir plateau in the south, and 350 km from Farafra Oasis in the east to the Libyan border in the west.
For example, the one-week Alexandria and Siwa Oasis tour combines Cairo with Alexandria, exploring the oasis town of Siwa by bike ( with an optional 4WD excursion into the desert.
EGYPT: Imaginative Traveller (01473 667337) offers seven nights' simple hotel B&B accom for pounds 588 from Dec 14 for fully-escorted Alexandria and Siwa Oasis tour.
A three-day medical convoy was held in Siwa Oasis between 10-12 September at the Siwa Central Hospital, providing a range of specialised medical care for the oasis' underserved community.
This came during the visit of an Emirati high-level delegation to Siwa Oasis to identify the success factors of establishing a large power station to generate electricity from clean solar energy.
She was active in conservation work and projects which assisted the Bedouin communities and ventured as far as Egypt's Siwa oasis in Western Desert, eager to explore Libya.
EGYPT: Imaginative Traveller (01473 667337) offers seven nights' simple hotel B&B accom for pounds 588 from December 14 for fully-escorted Alexandria and Siwa Oasis tour.
A three-day bedouin festival - until recently closed to outsiders - takes place at the Siwa Oasis in Egypt every October at the time of the full moon.
In the Western Military Region, bordering Libya, border guards captured three cars loaded with 48 boxes containing 17 shotguns, bullets, large amounts of the Tramadol drug and cannabis, and satellite connection devices in Marsa Matruh, Siwa Oasis and Salloum.