and Middelburg old world alphaviruses associated with neurologic disease in horses, South Africa.
Several mosquito-borne arboviruses including West Nile virus (WNV) and Sindbis
virus (SINV) were historically reported from both military members and local mosquitoes in the region.
Ahronowitz said, including measles, chikungunya, West Nile virus, O'nyong-nyong fever, Mayaro virus, Sindbis
virus, Ross river disease, Ebola/Marburg, dengue, and Zika.
A live, nonattenuated vaccine constructed from Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus and Sindbis
virus has demonstrated the ability to protect primates from EEE.
1) The alphavirus genus includes about 29 species, seven of these viruses can causes joint disorders in humans including CHIKV, O'nyong-nyong (Central Africa), Ross River and Barmah Forest (Australia and the Pacific), Semliki Forest (Africa), Sindbis
(Africa, Asia, Australia and Europe), and Mayaro (South America and the French Guyana).
5'-structures of virus mRNAs Viruses Genome Transcription Mammals/Birds (RNA type) Reo dsRNA([+ or -]) cytoplasm Rous sarcoma ssRNA(+) nucleus Avian sarcoma ssRNA(+) nucleus Moloney murine leukemia ssRNA(+) nucleus Feline leukemia ssRNA(+) nucleus Sindbis
ssRNA(+) cytoplasm Calci ssRNA(+) cytoplasm Dengue ssRNA(+) cytoplasm VSV ssRNA(-) cytoplasm Influenza ssRNA(-) nucleus Newcastle disease ssRNA(-) nucleus Polio ssRNA(+) cytoplasm EMC ssRNA(+) cytoplasm Mammals (DNA type) Vaccinia DNA cytoplasm Adeno DNA nucleus Simian virus 40 DNA nucleus Herpes simplex type 1 DNA nucleus Polyoma DNA nucleus Viruses 5' Structures Genome 5' end Mammals/Birds (RNA type) Reo [m.
2012), considerandose una especie versatil en la ocupacion de habitats disponibles en ecosistemas humanos, ornitofilicos, pero adaptable al ambiente antropico, siendo un vector del virus Nilo del occidente (WNV), virus de la encefalitis de San Luis (SLEV), dengue (DENV), virus Sindbis
y virus de la fiebre del Valle Rift (Andreadis et al.
The synthesized Schiff bases were evaluated for activity against several RNA- and DNA-viruses, using the following cell-based-assays: (a) Vero cells infected with parainfluenza-3 virus, reovirus-1, Sindbis
virus, Coxsackie B4 virus, or Punta Toro virus; (b) human embryonic lung (HEL) fibroblasts infected with herpes simplex virus-1 (KOS), herpes simplex virus-2 (G), acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus-1 (KOS ACVr TK-), vaccinia virus or vesicular stomatitis virus; (c) human epithelial (HeLa) cells infected with vesicular stomatitis virus, coxsackie B4 virus or respiratory syncytial virus and (d) Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells infected with influenza virus, subtype A/H1N1, A/H3N2 or B.
Ross River (RRV), Getah (GETV), Sindbis
(SINV) and Tembusu (Bunyamwera) were also been reported from the mosquito from different geographical locations (18-21).
Aedes aegypti salivary gland extracts modulate antiviral and Th1/Th2 cytokine responses to sindbis
Adaptation of Sindbis
virus to BHK cells selects for use of heparan sulfate as an attachment receptor.
Same as possible transmission of Sindbis
virus to humans, as migratory birds serve as hosts of mosquitoes which are vectors or transmitters for these viruses.