silibinin

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silibinin

One of two major constituents of silymarin (silibinins A and B), the main extract of milk thistle (Silybum marianum seeds), which have hepatoprotective effects (e.g., against Amanita phalloides (deathcap mushroom) poisoning) and anti-cancer activity (in animal models) against prostate adenocarcinoma, breast carcinoma cells, cervical carcinoma cells, colon cancer and both small and non-small lung carcinomas. It may also be useful for cirrhosis and type-2 diabetes.
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Both silymarin and silybin have demonstrated protective effects against hepatic iron toxicity in vivo.
Animal studies have shown that both silymarin and silybin reduce oxidation of liver cell membranes, reduce blood liver enzyme levels, and enhance production of protective adiponectin.
Silymarin, but again not silybin, prevented expression of inflammation associated proteins and transcriptional factors, as well as proinflammatory cytokine production.
Each bag contained 190 mg of milk thistle extract (sily-marin), standardized with a minimum silybin content of 25%.
Silymarin consists of at least seven flavonolignans, of which the most prevalent are the diastereoisomers silybin A and silybin B; silibinin consists only of silybin A and silybin B.
In particular, silybin, the main constituent, is sparingly soluble in water and spontaneously forms non-absorbable micro-crystals, resulting in a limited oral bioavailability (Kim et al.
60) Silymarin is itself composed of six major active molecules such as silybin, which are known as flavolignans, with exceptional antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity.
Among the isomers silybin is the major and most active component and represents about 60-70% (Pradhan and Girish 2006).
Silymarin is extracted from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), a plant rich in the flavonolignans silychristin, silydianin, silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A and isosilybin B, which are collectively known as the silymarin complex.
Among the pure compounds, IC(50) values for apigenin, diosmetin and silybin were 15, 19 and 12 muM, in N-11 murine microglia, and 7, 16 and 25 muM, in RAW 264.
In particular, silybin, the main constituent, is sparingly soluble in water and spontaneously tends to form non-absorbable microcrystals, resulting in an unfavourable pharmacokinetics.