signal transduction

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signal transduction

n.
The process by which a signal, such as a hormone or a change in the concentration of an ion, is converted into a biochemical response by means of the activation of a receptor on the surface or interior of a cell.

signal transduction

Biochemical conversion that is part of a process, such as the docking of hormone to receptor, stimulating cellular production of specific enzymes or other proteins.
See also: transduction

signal transduction

The common process by which the binding of a molecule to a receptor on a cell plasma membrane results in the transmission of a signal within the cell (second messenger) to trigger off a biochemical pathway in the cell.

signal transduction

control of cellular activity by way of an extracellular signal being transduced into an intracellular response. This involves a cell surface receptor that responds to an external signalling compound by carrying the signal across the cell membrane to influence intracellular activities, such as expression of the genome. For example, the compound may bind to the receptor, altering its conformation, and result in the activation of an intracellular protein by phosphorylation. This, in turn, can initiate the transduction pathway in the cell. Some signals to which cells respond are ANTIGENS, HORMONES, GROWTH FACTORS, and the availability of nutrients or toxic substances.
References in periodicals archive ?
Novel targets: Signal transduction pathways, pathways regulating cellular proliferation, growth, survival, differentiation, cell division cycle, DNA repair, apoptotic pathways, molecular chaperones, development signaling pathways, angiogenesis, and vasculature.
An emphasis on the genetic pathways in the context of toxic exposure is critical to developing a sense of where toxic exposure may make contact with critical signal transduction pathways that regulate pattern formation.
Assigning proteins to metabolic and signal transduction pathways is a major goal during the process of target identification and validation.
CONCLUSIONS: Anthocyanins and other phenolics from bilberry upregulate the oxidative stress defense enzymes HO-1 and GST-pi in RPE, suggesting that they stimulate signal transduction pathways influencing genes controlled by the antioxidant response element.
Researchers in a number of disciplines in addition to development and toxicology contribute to discussions of such matters as signal transduction pathways as targets for teratogens, personalized nutrition and medicine in perinatal development, zebrafish as a non-mammalian model of developmental toxicology, integrating whole-animal developmental toxicity data into risk assessment, genomic approaches, and investigating drug effects in human pregnancy.
To do that, scientists begin by modeling individual components such as protein networks and signal transduction pathways.
AlphaScreen([R]) SureFire([R]) assays provide a cell-based environment for allowing the measurement of endogenous proteins in cell lysates, as well as measurement of key signal transduction pathways implicated in many disease states.
The study of protein phosphorylation can provide key insights into the signal transduction pathways that are activated in cells in response to different stimuli, such as growth factor stimulation and exposure to toxicants.
Toxicologists who use microarrays hope to uncover relationships that link gene expression data to signal transduction pathways, gene networks that are often used to describe the sequence of biochemical events controlling cellular function.
This volume of the proceedings of the Academy's meeting "Cell Signaling World: Signal Transduction Pathways as Therapeutic Targets" held January 2006 in Luxembourg addresses current research on signal transduction in such topics as bacterial endotoxin, expression and suppression of cytokine signaling-3, control of human herpes virus Type 8, regulation of apolipoprotein B secretions but not lipids by tumor necrosis factors, signaling pathways used by HSV-1 and by proteinase activated receptors and melphalan's role in the reduction of the severity of experimental colitis.
KRX-0401, the Company's lead oncology compound under development, is a novel, oral, anticancer agent that modulates Akt and several other important signal transduction pathways, including MAP kinase and JNK.
While at Eli Lilly, he spearheaded initiatives that incorporated state-of-the-art proteomics platforms for quantitative analysis of signal transduction pathways, including innovative mass spectrometry approaches.

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