Becktel, "Clinical Implications of Sickle-Cell Trait
and Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Hospitalized Black Male Patients," The New England Journal of Medicine, vol.
In the Sergipe maroon community under analysis, three cases of individuals with sickle-cell trait were reported (Table 1).
In Generation III, the sickle-cell trait gene was probably transmitted by the male individual, father of P3 and P4, who is not a permanent resident in the maroon community under study anymore, having divorced the spouse (Figure 1) and began a new marital relationship.
The African Americans and the Caucasian race were reported in 93% and 7% of the valuable cases, respectively; whereas the sickle-cell trait
was found in 97.7% of patients (Table 2).
The sickle-cell trait
is associated with enhanced immunoglobulin G antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigens.
Although the terms "sickle-cell trait" and "sickle-cell anemia" are used interchangeably by many, they cause distinctly different physical conditions.
Just as with sickle-cell trait, the G-6-PD deficiency may cause no symptoms for years, but when an employee with this deficiency is exposed to industrial chemicals such as benzene, nitrosamines, nitrites, and lead, or even to air pollutants, an abnormal degree of red corpuscle destruction may occur.
New York's Civil Rights Law covers blind or deaf employees and Florida protects employees who carry the sickle-cell trait
. Some local ordinances preclude discharge for various other reasons, such as having AIDS in Austin, Texas, or sexual orientation and preference in San Francisco.
Black military recruits carrying the abnormal hemoglobin S in their red blood cells are 28 to 40 times more likely to die suddenly during strenuous physical exertion than are recruits without the so-called sickle-cell trait
, researchers reported this week.
Search terms included 'Plasmodium falciparum', 'merozoite surface protein', 'genetic diversity', 'malaria', 'multiplicity', 'molecular epidemiology', 'sickle-cell trait
', 'natural immunity', 'immune response' used in various combinations like 'merozoite surface protein + genetic diversity', 'sickle-cell trait
+ genetic diversity', 'merozoite surface protein + sickle-cell trait
The precise mechanism by which sickle-cell trait
imparts resistance to malaria is unknown.
On the other hand, old age of his parents and relatives - up to 50 years - means they could very well have carried sickle-cell traits
, and could therefore have been highly resistant to malaria.