BTV serotype 3 was first identified in 2016 but probably was present in Israel since at least 2013 (9), EHDV serotype 6 was identified in 2015 (6), EHDV serotype 1 was found in 2016, and Shuni virus was detected in 2014 (10).
Malformations caused by Shuni virus in ruminants, Israel, 2014-2015.
We tested all specimens for WNV, Shuni virus, alphaviruses, and equine encephalitis virus and submitted samples for rabies virus testing, if suspected, to Onderstepoort Veterinary Research, Onderstepoort, South Africa, as previously described (12).
We detected 14 (17.7%) co-infections in WNV-infected horses (Table 1), with high fatality rates for most co-infecting viruses: MIDV (100%, 4/4); AHSV (66.7%, 2/3); SINV (100%, 3/3); Shuni virus (33.3%, 1/3); and equine encephalitis virus (0%, 0/1).
Shuni virus as cause of neurologic disease in horses.
Genomic and phylogenetic characterization of Shuni virus. Arch Virol.
Of the 27 samples, 23 (85%) were positive for Shuni virus (SHUV) by PCR (Table).
Shuni virus as cause of neurological disease in horses.
(SHUV) (genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae) was first isolated in Nigeria in 1966 during surveys of livestock, Culicoides midges, and mosquitoes, SHUV also once was isolated from a febrile child (6,7).
To enable comparative sequence analysis and phylogenetic investigations, we determined almost full-length S-, M-, and L-segment sequences for 9 Simbu serogroup viruses belonging to 5 species (Table 1): SHAV, Peaton virus, and Sango virus, species Shamonda virus; DOUV and SATV, species Sathuperi virus; Aino virus and Shuni virus
, species Shuni virus
; Sabo virus, species Akabane virus; and Simbu virus, species Simbu virus.
We report a case in which a virus isolated in cell culture from the brain of a euthanized horse that had severe encephalitis was identified as Shuni virus (SHUV), a member of the family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus, serogroup Simbu.
Identification of SHUV from a horse with severe neurologic signs prompted us to design specific Shuni virus primers and screen further cases of acute disease.