It was lauded for its safety for humans because it utilized the shikimate
pathway, which is a metabolic route that blocks synthesis of proteins, causing weeds to die.
The mixture of low doses of lactofen with glyphosate increased the accumulation of shikimate
in the tissues of plants of Malva parviflora (Wells & Appleby, 1992).
It is known that most phenolic compounds are derived from this amino acid in a reaction catalyzed by Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, EC 126.96.36.199) and the decrease of levels of these amino acids would be coherent with the inhibition of the Shikimate
pathway (Manela et al., 2015).
The flavonoid variants are all related by a common biosynthetic pathway, incorporating precursors from both the shikimate
and the acetate-malonate pathways .
When analyzing the intermediaries of the shikimate
pathway, specifically coumaric acid with the synthesis of phenylpropanoids, high level of correlation was detected with the accumulation of sinapic acid (r = 0.85) and ferulic acid (r = 1.00), following the pathway below, a high correlation with concentration of naringenin was detected (r = 0.92).
This aqueous layer is now termed "oil palm phenolics" and contains such phytochemicals as polyphenols, flavonoids, phenolic acids, shikimate
, oligosaccharides, and metal ions.
Williams et al., "Sequencing of the Francisella tularensis strain Schu 4 genome reveals the shikimate
and purine metabolic pathways, targets for the construction of a rationally attenuated auxotrophic vaccine," Microbial and Comparative Genomics, vol.
During the reconstruction the authors also noted that shikimate
production was incomplete and thus proposed that hexose and L-aspartate-4 semialdehyde were used, consistent with [sup.13]C labeling data from tryptophan degradation.
Stocker-Worgotter, "Metabolic diversity of lichen-forming ascomycetous fungi: culturing, polyketide and shikimate
metabolite production, and PKS genes," Natural Product Reports, vol.
ESTERASE (CSE) is a gene coding for an enzyme involved in lignin biosynthesis.
Among them, comp50099_c1, which was annotated as shikimate
O-hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT, EC: 188.8.131.52), had an expression level in BH18 that was 2.17-fold higher than ZH23.