It acts by inhibiting 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) in the shikimate
This pathway (called the Shikimate
Pathway) is also how bacteria, algae, and fungi produce the same amino acids.
These were Isocitrate dehydrogenase (Idh1, Idh2), Malic enzyme (Mel, Me2), and Shikimate
dehydrogenase (Skdh) that were resolved in a buffer morpholine-citric system pH 7.
It was assumed at the time of its registration that it couldn't affect animals because the Shikimate
Pathway (where it impairs protein synthesis) is present in plants and bacteria but not in animals.
Metabolic diversity of lichen-forming ascomycetous fungi: culturing, polyketide and shikimate
metabolite production, and PKS genes.
While PEPCase plays a role in C4 plants for the CO2 assimilation that produces carbohydrate, EPSPS functions in the shikimate
pathway that produces the aromatic amino acids and many aromatic secondary metabolites (Herrmann, 1995).
aureus as described previously, including carbamate kinase (arcC), shikimate
dehydrogenase (aroE), glycerol kinase (glp), Guanylate kinase (gmk), phosphate acetyltransferase (pta), triosephosphate isomerase (tpi), and acetyl coenzyme A acetyltransferase (yqi).
The efficacy of this herbicide on red rice control resulted from its alternative mode of action, inhibiting 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3- phosphate synthase (EPSPS), a key enzyme in the shikimate
biosynthetic pathway that is necessary for the production of the aromatic amino acids, auxin, phytoalexins, folic acid, lignin, plastoquinones and many other secondary products.
Shikimic acid, commonly known as its anionic form shikimate
, is a cyclohexene, a cyclitol and a cyclohexanecarboxylic acid.
These compounds are derivatives of the shikimate
, pentose phosphate and Phenylpropanoid pathways in plants .
Glyphosate kills weeds by interfering with production of aromatic amino acids, and shikimate
plays a key role in producing those amino acids.
Experts in plant genetics, biochemistry and chemical analysis teamed up to identify a key enzyme named caffeoyl shikimate