Multicenter evaluation of a sequence-based protocol for subtyping Shiga toxins
and standardizing Stx nomenclature.
Antibodies used in current tests only recognize a subset of Shiga toxins
, but not all Shiga toxins
The new antibody-based assay identifies all known subtypes of Shiga toxins
produced by STEC and has been tested in various studies by He, research leader Luisa Cheng, biologist Larry Stanker, and former ARS postdoctoral research associate Craig Skinner.
belong to a large family of bacterial toxins with two major groups, stx1 and stx2.
Kasetkowy second immunochromatographic rapid test for the detection of Shiga toxins
1 and 2 (Verotoksyn) produced by E.
For Embase/Medline and Scopus, we used a combined search of the following concepts and their Emtree synonyms: Shiga Toxins
, Shigella, and Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome.
represent a group of bacterial toxins that are involved in the most serious forms of food poisoning.
When found to have shiga toxins
, the specimens would be sent to a reference laboratory abroad through the World Health Organisation (WHO).
This family of toxins was subsequently also called Shiga-like toxins (SLT), and more recently Shiga toxins
(Stx), because of the close relation to the Stx of Shigella dysenteriae type 1.
Two types of Shiga toxins
, Stx1 and Stx 2, are known and constitute the main virulence factors in STEC strains (PATON & PATON, 1998).
Shigella dysenteriae, just like many other bacteria, excrete toxins such as Shiga toxins
(Stx's), which cause serious complications during infection (Paton & Paton, 1998).
The best way to identify all STEC infections is to screen all stool samples submitted for routine enteric bacterial testing for Shiga toxins
(Stxs) using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) or polymerase chain reaction.