Three Simbu serogroup viruses, Peaton virus, Sathuperi virus, and Shamonda virus (SHAV), were identified in Japan during the past 2 decades and have been suspected of being involved in congenital defects in calves (8).
The resurgence of Shamonda virus, an African Simbu group virus of the genus Orthobunyavirus, in Japan.
The S segment of SBV was shown to share 96.7% nucleotide sequence similarity with S segment of Shamonda virus
. Comparably, the similarity between SBV and Sathuperi virus S segment nucleotide sequence is 94% .
Schmallenberg virus as possible ancestor of Shamonda virus
. Emerg Infect Dis.
The Simbu serogroup (family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus) includes Shamonda virus
, Akabane virus, Sathuperi virus, and Aino virus.
SBV has been identified as most related to Sathuperi virus, and for the small and large segments, Shamonda virus
segments show the highest sequence identity.
The first report of SBV showed highest similarities of M- and L-segment sequences to partial Aino virus and AKAV sequences, whereas the N gene was most closely related to Shamonda virus (SHAV) (1).
To enable comparative sequence analysis and phylogenetic investigations, we determined almost full-length S-, M-, and L-segment sequences for 9 Simbu serogroup viruses belonging to 5 species (Table 1): SHAV, Peaton virus, and Sango virus, species Shamonda virus; DOUV and SATV, species Sathuperi virus; Aino virus and Shuni virus, species Shuni virus; Sabo virus, species Akabane virus; and Simbu virus, species Simbu virus.
It is a RNA virus and shows 97% identity with Shamonda virus (SFIAV) (small gene segment), 71% identity with Aino virus (medium gene segment), and 69% identity with Akabane virus (AKAV) (large gene segment) (4).
The resurgence of Shamonda virus, an African Simbu group vims of the genus Orthobunyavirus, in Japan.
The most similar sequences were from a Shamonda virus detected in cattle in Japan (S segment; INSDC accession no.
However, because of the close relationship to Shamonda virus and the absence of reports of clinical signs in humans, the risk to humans currently is assessed as very low to negligible.