Testosterone, for its action in peripheral tissues, has to be converted to dihydrotestosterone by the action of an enzyme called 5-alpha reducatse.5 This is the key enzyme in male sex differentiation
. Ideally 5-ARD deficiency should be diagnosed by measuring the enzyme level.
Induction of sex change in teleost fish is possible because germ cells are bipotential and their sensitivity to exogenous hormones allow disruption of the natural biochemical processes that govern sex differentiation
, overriding normal developmental patterns even after gonadal differentiation has taken place (Devlin & Nagahama, 2002; Strussmann & Nakamura, 2002).
"When it comes to sex differentiation
, men really like blue.
Abnormal sex differentiation
: Hermaphroditism and gonadal dysgenesis.
Molecular genetic analysis is required to confirm mutations in genes present in X, Y or autosomal chromosomes causing disorders of sex differentiation
. Other etiological diagnosis of our XY DSD patients included hypo gonadotropic hypogonadism (7.9%), primary hypogonadism (7.3%), 5 alpha reductase deficiency (2.6%), partial gonadal dysgenesis (16.6%), isolated micro penis (12%) which is similar to studies by Atta et al and Erdogan et al18,21.
Yamamoto et al., "Identification of genes involved in gonadal sex differentiation
and the dimorphic expression pattern in undifferentiated gonads of Russian sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii Brandt & Ratzeburg, 1833," Journal of Applied Ichthyology, vol.
These findings suggest that continuous exposure to LET may perturb sex differentiation
in carp, the molecular mechanism not only involve inhibition of cytochrome P450 aromatase activity, but also the changes of upstream genes in sex differentiation
However, sex differentiation
is difficult in many species with monomorphic plumage due to a large overlap in the linear dimensions of males and females (Jakubas & Wojczulanis 2007, Meissner & Krupa 2016).
Role of phytohormones in sex differentiation
would establish eligibility based on measurable biological differences associated with sex." (3) Those favoring criteria based on gender "propose that eligibility to compete in women's sports be based on an athlete's gender identity, as determined by either self-identification or legal sex status." (4) Wilson argues that, while significant time and energy is spent elaborating and assessing the science of sex differentiation
, little time is spent parsing the general category of gender.
Luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) is essential for normal male sex differentiation
. Inactivating mutations of LHCGR gene result in varying degree of Leydig cell hypoplasia (LCH) that causes 46,XY DSD.
Although the mechanism of sex differentiation
in crustaceans has yet to be defined, the androgenic gland (AG) is thought to be the exclusive organ that produces the androgenic hormone, which induces male sexual development.