In terms of treatment type, the market has been classified into serotonin antagonists
, steroids, dopamine antagonists, nk-1 receptor antagonists, others, and non-pharmacological treatment.
Longer latencies have been reported in brainstem lesions, stimulation of the substantia nigra, and after administration of nicotine or D2 receptor agonists (apomorphine) (17) or serotonin antagonists
Three other agents are not available in the United States: flunarizine (an agent with calcium channel-blocking activity) and two serotonin antagonists
, pizotifen and methysergide (a semisynthetic ergot alkaloid).
were developed through modifications in the antiemetic metoclopramide, and work by selectively blocking the serotonin receptors both centrally - in the hypothalamus, the chemoreceptor trigger zone and the cerebral cortex and peripherally in the enterochromaffin cells of the intestinal mucosa.
As mentioned, it is possible that this drag combined with either the SSRI or the triptan individually could cause the illness as well without the combination of the other drag because this class of antinausea drags are all serotonin antagonists
. Some alternative drags that are available to treat nausea/vomiting and do not involve serotonin activity include scopolamine and chlorphenoxamine.
However, Becker (1986) reported that nonspecific serotonin antagonists
, like cyproheptadine and cinanserine, produced potent contrast-reducing action on the second post-shift trial, and Grigson and Flaherty (1991) showed that cyproheptadine reduced cSNC also during the first post-shift trial.
5-[HT.sub.3] receptor antagonists or serotonin antagonists
suppress nausea and vomiting by inhibiting serotonin binding to the 5-[HT.sub.3] receptors.
The inhibition was further repressed when treated with the high concentration (50 [mu]M) op the two serotonin antagonists
Although the animal model suggests that serotonin antagonists
should be a useful treatment, this has not been tested in humans.
Preventive medications might include anticonvulsants, blood pressure medications, antidepressants, serotonin antagonists
, or unconventional treatments such as magnesium salts or vitamins.
(12,13) Likewise, the serotonin antagonists
nefazodone and trazodone have been shown to reduce the frequency of PTSD nightmares, as well as improve overall sleep quality.
In general, this drug and the serotonin antagonists
dolasetron (Anzemet) and granisetron (Kytril) are now felt to be safe.