processes and sequelae: On the taking of a psychological dive.
Given the literature linking behavioral self-handicapping
and sabotage by procrastinators (Ferrari, 1991b; Ferrari & Tice, 2000; see also Steele, in press), in the present study, individuals who report strong procrastination tendencies were expected to use self-presentational tactics that reflected defensiveness to protect their self-esteem (such as self-handicapping
, excuse-making, and justifying failures).
behaviors occur when employees are insecure about their ability to perform well and may be motivated by high social anxiety and fear of the future (Renn et al.
To investigate relationships between achievement goal variables and other academic outcome variables, students' GPA and responses to additional subscales from the PALS were collected, including academic self-efficacy and other academically related outcomes associated with maladaptive learning (such as self-handicapping
, avoiding novelty, and skepticism about school).
Drawing from the empirical literature on interpersonal processes in depression, they examine the operation of such processes as stress generation, negative feedback-seeking, excessive reassurance-seeking, interpersonal conflict avoidance, self-handicapping
, blame maintenance, and stable vulnerabilities.
Maladaptive behavioural dimensions are self-handicapping
Midgley and Urdan (2001) report that perceptions of a performance classroom goal structure can predict the use of self-handicapping
strategies, independent of students' personal goals.
The students' motivation was examined using the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Survey in the following aspects: personal achievement goal orientations, perceptions of the classroom goal structure, academic efficacy, academic self-handicapping
strategies, and cultural dissonance between home and school.
The act of self-handicapping
involves the positing of claimed or behavioral barriers to performance that are both self-debilitating (i.
Performance goals have also been related to self-handicapping
behavior (Rhodewalt, 1994; Urdan, Midgley, & Anderman, 1998), that is, the strategic creation of obstacles to successful performance.
Self-esteem protection or enhancement after failure has also been found to be aided by self-handicapping
, a strategy used to discount or augment the attribution of causes for success or failure (Arkin & Baumgardner, 1985).
by procrastinators: Effects of task importance and performance privacy.