germination

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germination

 [jer″mĭ-na´shun]
the sprouting of a seed, spore, or plant embryo.

germination

/ger·mi·na·tion/ (jer″mĭ-na´shun) the sprouting of a seed, spore, or plant embryo.ger´minative

germination

[jur′minā′shən]
Etymology: L, germen, sprout
1 the initial growth and development of an organism from the time of fertilization to the formation of the embryo.
2 the sprouting of a spore or the seed of a plant. germinate, v.
Germinationclick for a larger image
Fig. 171 Germination . A typical seedling.

germination

the beginning of the growth of a seed, spore or other structure that is dormant. Seed DORMANCY can be broken by several factors, depending on the species:
  1. the removal of a germination inhibitor which can be leached out by water.
  2. a period of cold temperature (STRATIFICATION).
  3. exposure to the correct wavelength of light to stimulate PHYTOCHROMES in the seed, for example, lettuce seeds require red light for germination and are inhibited by far-red light.
  4. rupture of a thick testa by (i) microbial breakdown, (ii) abrasive action of soil (as in desert plants), (iii) heat from bush fires, (iv) the effect of digestive juices (as when eaten by birds), (v) the softening action of water. Once dormancy is broken a regular sequence of events takes place: water is imbibed which hydrates the tissues increasing enzymic action in the ALEURONE layer (when present), a process aided by the release of GIBBERELLIN from the embryo; food stores are mobilized by production of enzymes in the ENDOSPERM or within the COTYLEDONS; AUXINS and CYTOKININS are formed which promote cell division and enlargement, causing the embryo to grow and burst through the testa. See Fig. 171 .

There are two main types of germination, depending on whether the seed cotyledons are carried above the soil (EPIGEAL) or remain below ground (HYPOGEAL).

germination

the sprouting of a seed or spore or of a plant embryo.
References in periodicals archive ?
Effects of GA3 Treatment on Seed Germination Rate using the Different Storage Methods
Hence the proof of higher penetration rate in magnetized water than in the normal water concludes that Magnetized water has positive effect on seed germination.
Several investigations of seed germination under salinity stress have indicated that seeds of most species attain their maximum germination in distilled water and are very sensitive to elevated salinity at the germination and seedling phases of development [26].
According the obtained results, it can be concluded that the best temperature for rambutan seed germination is 25[degrees]C and, if the seeds are submitted to storage inside the fruit until sowing, it could be realized until 6 days.
Similarly, sorghum shoot water extract (10 ml kg-1 soil) also exerted substantial suppressing effects and decreased seed germination of cotton by 9.
Therefore, from seed germination and root growth on, the absorption of the nutrients present in the substrate and their mobilization to the structures of the seedlings began, promoting their development, as observed for Peltophorum dubium (Spreng.
A variety of AgNPs effective on seed germination has been dependent on nanoparticle properties and plant type [32].
Besides, there was no significant variation in seed germination between the two storage conditions tested.
1] protein, which increased during seed germination at 10, 25 and 30[degrees]C, reaching 0.